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Concept: Mechanical resonance


Graphene has received significant attention due to its excellent mechanical properties, which has resulted in the emergence of graphene-based nano-electro-mechanical system such as nanoresonators. The nonlinear vibration of a graphene resonator and its application to mass sensing (based on nonlinear oscillation) have been poorly studied, although a graphene resonator is able to easily reach the nonlinear vibration. In this work, we have studied the nonlinear vibration of a graphene resonator driven by a geometric nonlinear effect due to an edge-clamped boundary condition using a continuum elastic model such as a plate model. We have shown that an in-plane tension can play a role in modulating the nonlinearity of a resonance for a graphene. It has been found that the detection sensitivity of a graphene resonator can be improved by using nonlinear vibration induced by an actuation force-driven geometric nonlinear effect. It is also shown that an in-plane tension can control the detection sensitivity of a graphene resonator that operates both harmonic and nonlinear oscillation regimes. Our study suggests the design principles of a graphene resonator as a mass sensor for developing a novel detection scheme using graphene-based nonlinear oscillators.

Concepts: Laser, Resonator, Oscillation, Wave, Resonance, Acoustic resonance, Nonlinear system, Mechanical resonance


Courtship displays may serve as signals of the quality of motor performance, but little is known about the underlying biomechanics that determines both their signal content and costs. Peacocks (Pavo cristatus) perform a complex, multimodal “train-rattling” display in which they court females by vibrating the iridescent feathers in their elaborate train ornament. Here we study how feather biomechanics influences the performance of this display using a combination of field recordings and laboratory experiments. Using high-speed video, we find that train-rattling peacocks stridulate their tail feathers against the train at 25.6 Hz, on average, generating a broadband, pulsating mechanical sound at that frequency. Laboratory measurements demonstrate that arrays of peacock tail and train feathers have a broad resonant peak in their vibrational spectra at the range of frequencies used for train-rattling during the display, and the motion of feathers is just as expected for feathers shaking near resonance. This indicates that peacocks are able to drive feather vibrations energetically efficiently over a relatively broad range of frequencies, enabling them to modulate the feather vibration frequency of their displays. Using our field data, we show that peacocks with longer trains use slightly higher vibration frequencies on average, even though longer train feathers are heavier and have lower resonant frequencies. Based on these results, we propose hypotheses for future studies of the function and energetics of this display that ask why its dynamic elements might attract and maintain female attention. Finally, we demonstrate how the mechanical structure of the train feathers affects the peacock’s visual display by allowing the colorful iridescent eyespots-which strongly influence female mate choice-to remain nearly stationary against a dynamic iridescent background.

Concepts: Signal, Wave, Frequency, Sound, Resonance, Vibration, Feather, Mechanical resonance


Arrays of on-chip spherical glass shells of hundreds of micrometers in diameter with ultra-smooth surfaces and sub-micrometer wall thicknesses have been fabricated and have been shown to sustain optical resonance modes with high Q-factors of greater than 50 million. The resonators exhibit temperature sensitivity of -1.8 GHz K(-1) and can be configured as ultra-high sensitivity thermal sensors for a broad range of applications. By virtue of the geometry’s strong light-matter interaction, the inner surface provides an excellent on-chip sensing platform that truly opens up the possibility for reproducible, chip scale, ultra-high sensitivity microfluidic sensor arrays. As a proof of concept we demonstrate the sensitivity of the resonance frequency as water is filled inside the microspherical shell and is allowed to evaporate. By COMSOL modeling, the dependence of this interaction on glass shell thickness is elucidated and the experimentally measured sensitivities for two different shell thicknesses are explained.

Concepts: Resonator, Feedback, Sound, Resonance, Differential geometry, Acoustic resonance, Standing wave, Mechanical resonance


A novel square-plate piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor operated in two orthogonal first bending vibration modes (B(1)) is proposed. The piezoelectric vibrator of the linear motor is simply made of a single PZT ceramic plate (sizes: 15 x 15 x 2 mm) and poled in its thickness direction. The top surface electrode of the square ceramic plate was divided into four active areas along its two diagonal lines for exciting two orthogonal B(1) modes. The achieved driving force and speed from the linear motor are 1.8 N and 230 mm/s, respectively, under one pair orthogonal voltage drive of 150 V(p-p) at the resonance frequency of 92 kHz. The proposed linear motor has advantages over conventional ultrasonic linear motors, such as relatively larger driving force, very simple working mode and structure, and low fabrication cost.

Concepts: Wave, Frequency, Sound, Resonance, Vibration, Piezoelectricity, Damping, Mechanical resonance


Transverse-electric (TE) resonant optical tunneling through an asymmetric, single-barrier potential system consisting of all passive materials in two-dimensional (2-D) glass/silver/TiO2/air configuration is quantified at a silver thickness of 35 nm. Resonant tunneling occurs when the incident condition corresponds to the excitation of a radiation mode. Lasing-like transmission occurring at resonance is carefully qualified in terms of power conservation, resonance condition, and identification of the gain medium equivalent. In particular, effective gain (geff) and threshold gain (gth) coefficients, both of which are strong functions of the forward reflection coefficient at the silver-TiO2 interface, are analytically obtained and the angular span over which geff > gth is further verified rigorously electromagnetically. The results show that the present configuration may be treated as a cascade of the gain equivalent (i.e. the silver film) and the TiO2 resonator that is of Fabry-Perot type, giving rise to negative gth when resonant tunneling occurs. The transmittance spectrum exhibiting a gain-curve-like envelope is shown to be a direct consequence of the competition of the resonator loss at the silver-TiO2 interface and the forward tunneling probability through the silver barrier, all controlled by the effective silver barrier thickness.

Concepts: Resonator, Vector space, 2006 albums, Resonance, Acoustic resonance, Quantum tunnelling, Electronics terms, Mechanical resonance


The effect of a thin layer with the finite surface conductivity located near the lateral electric field excited resonator on its characteristics is studied theoretically and experimentally. It has been shown that for the fixed distance between the free side of the resonator and conducting layer with increasing the surface conductivity of the layer the resonant frequency of the parallel resonance remains initially practically constant, then sharply decreases in a certain range and then insignificantly changes. For the fixed value of the layer conductivity the parallel resonant frequency increases at the increase in the gap between the resonator and layer and then achieves the saturation. The maximum change in the frequency of the parallel resonance corresponds to a zero gap when the layer conductivity varies over the wide range is equal to ∼1%. The frequency of the series resonance decreases only by ∼0.08% due to the change in the layer conductivity. The obtained results may be useful for the development of the gas sensors based on the lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator conjugated to the gas sensitive film, the conductivity of which changes in the presence of the given gas.

Concepts: Resonator, Resonance, Acoustic resonance, Standing wave, Mechanical resonance


Mechanical resonators are promising systems for storing and manipulating information. To transfer information between mechanical modes, either direct coupling or an interface between these modes is needed. In previous works, strong coupling between different modes in a single mechanical resonator and direct interaction between neighboring mechanical resonators have been demonstrated. However, coupling between distant mechanical resonators, which is a crucial request for long-distance classical and quantum information processing using mechanical devices, remains an experimental challenge. Here, we report the experimental observation of strong indirect coupling between separated mechanical resonators in a graphene-based electromechanical system. The coupling is mediated by a far-off-resonant phonon cavity through virtual excitations via a Raman-like process. By controlling the resonant frequency of the phonon cavity, the indirect coupling can be tuned in a wide range. Our results may lead to the development of gate-controlled all-mechanical devices and open up the possibility of long-distance quantum mechanical experiments.

Concepts: Electromagnetism, Quantum mechanics, Resonator, Resonance, Quantum information, Acoustic resonance, Standing wave, Mechanical resonance


Architected materials that control elastic wave propagation are essential in vibration mitigation and sound attenuation. Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials use band-gap engineering to forbid certain frequencies from propagating through a material. However, existing solutions are limited in the low-frequency regimes and in their bandwidth of operation because they require impractical sizes and masses. Here, we present a class of materials (labeled elastic metastructures) that supports the formation of wide and low-frequency band gaps, while simultaneously reducing their global mass. To achieve these properties, the metastructures combine local resonances with structural modes of a periodic architected lattice. Whereas the band gaps in these metastructures are induced by Bragg scattering mechanisms, their key feature is that the band-gap size and frequency range can be controlled and broadened through local resonances, which are linked to changes in the lattice geometry. We demonstrate these principles experimentally, using advanced additive manufacturing methods, and inform our designs using finite-element simulations. This design strategy has a broad range of applications, including control of structural vibrations, noise, and shock mitigation.

Concepts: Wave, Acoustics, Materials science, Frequency, Sound, Vibration, Waves, Mechanical resonance


The design of high-finesse resonant cavities for electronic waves faces challenges due to short electron coherence lengths in solids. Complementing previous approaches to confine electronic waves by carefully positioned adatoms at clean metallic surfaces, we demonstrate an approach inspired by the peculiar acoustic phenomena in whispering galleries. Taking advantage of graphene’s gate-tunable light-like carriers, we create whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators defined by circular pn junctions, induced by a scanning tunneling probe. We can tune the resonator size and the carrier concentration under the probe in a back-gated graphene device over a wide range. The WGM-type confinement and associated resonances are a new addition to the quantum electron-optics toolbox, paving the way to develop electronic lenses and resonators.

Concepts: Laser, Resonator, Oscillation, Acoustics, Resonance, Acoustic resonance, Standing wave, Mechanical resonance


Carbon nanotube mechanical resonators have attracted considerable interest because of their small mass, the high quality of their surfaces, and the pristine electronic states they host. However, their small dimensions result in fragile vibrational states that are difficult to measure. Here, we observe quality factors Q as high as 5 × 10(6) in ultra-clean nanotube resonators at a cryostat temperature of 30 mK, where we define Q as the ratio of the resonant frequency over the linewidth. Measuring such high quality factors requires the use of an ultra-low-noise method to rapidly detect minuscule vibrations, as well as careful reduction of the noise of the electrostatic environment. We observe that the measured quality factors fluctuate because of fluctuations of the resonant frequency. We measure record-high quality factors, which are comparable to the highest Q values reported in mechanical resonators of much larger size, a remarkable result considering that reducing the size of resonators is usually concomitant with decreasing quality factors. The combination of ultra-low mass and very large Q offers new opportunities for ultra-sensitive detection schemes and quantum optomechanical experiments.

Concepts: Measurement, Resonator, Ratio, Wave, Resonance, Acoustic resonance, Mechanical resonance, Balance wheel