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Concept: Maxillary sinus


BACKGROUND: Transnasal cannulation of the natural ostium in patients with an intact uncinate process is complicated by the lack of direct visualizationof the ostium. Accuracy of transnasal dilation of the maxillary ostium was evaluated for a malleable-tipped balloon device that was bent to specific angles for avoiding the fontanelle during cannulation.METHODS: Transnasal cannulation and dilation of 42 cadaver maxillary sinus ostia was attempted by 6 surgeons including 3 with very limited clinicalexperience using the study device. All physicians received procedure training including the technique to shape the balloon device into the recommended 135 degree maxillary configuration. Tissue dissection was prohibited. Canine fossa trephination and transantral endoscopy were used to evaluate cannulation and dilation outcomes. Physician operators were blinded to transantral images and results were documented by two observers.RESULTS: Appropriate transnasal cannulation and dilation of natural maxillary sinus ostia occurred in 92.9% (39/42) of attempts. Two failures emanated from procedural deviations. In one deviation, the bend angle was changed to 90 degrees and the device tip did not cannulate the ostium. In the second, the device was passed through a preexisting hole in the uncinate and cannulated the natural ostium. A third failure occurred when the device was passed through the fontanelle creating a false lumen.CONCLUSION: Using recommended procedural techniques and a malleable-tipped balloon device, newly trained and experienced physicians alike can perform uncinate-preserving transnasal cannulation and dilation of the maxillary ostium with a high rate of success.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Physician, Failure, Angle, Maxillary sinus, Cadaver, Dissection, Uncinate process of ethmoid bone


Balloon dilation may offer a more expedient and cost-effective treatment method compared with traditional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic maxillary atelectasis. We sought to demonstrate the feasibility of balloon dilation of the maxillary os as a treatment modality for patients with chronic maxillary atelectasis by investigating the short-term outcomes in a retrospective case series of 4 patients representing 5 sinuses treated between 2011 and 2013. All sinuses were successfully balloon dilated without complications. Follow-up ranged from 1 week to 4 months. Aeration of the treated sinuses without restenosis was confirmed by postoperative endoscopy, sinus computed tomography, or both. All patients reported subjective symptomatic improvement. Balloon dilation of the maxillary os may be a feasible treatment option for maxillary sinus atelectasis. Longer follow-up and a larger study sample will be needed to validate the safety of this technique and determine the rate of restenosis.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Retrospective, Maxillary sinus, Endoscopy, Case series, Dilation, Cervical dilation


In this report, we discuss the case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with a case of chronic maxillary sinusitis.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Maxillary sinus


A 57-year-old woman with a history of atypical intracranial meningioma had undergone multiple craniotomies and endoscopic skull base procedures over several years. She presented most recently with nasal discharge consisting of intranasal larvae. Isolated organisms from the nasal cavity and maxillary sinus were identified as blow fly larvae (Calliphoridae family). The patient was treated with transnasal debridement and antibiotic therapy. The organisms were successfully eradicated and she is free from further signs of infection. Intranasal myiasis is an unusual complication of anterior skull base surgery.

Concepts: Bacteria, Skull, Maxillary sinus, Nasal cavity, Fly, Calliphoridae, Maxillary nerve, Myiasis


PURPOSE: Less morbidity is the major advantage to a one-stage crestal approach to maxillary sinus elevation. However, the ability to ensure high primary implant stability in a severely atrophied ridge is of chief concern. The purpose of this study is to measure and compare the success rate of implants placed at the time of crestal approach sinus lift in patients with ≤4 mm of residual alveolar bone (RAB) and >4 mm of RAB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this three-site multicenter study, one hundred two patients, 53 males and 49 females, (23-89 years old; mean = 56.2) were evaluated. Three experienced surgeons (>15 years) performed the crestal approach sinus lift microsurgeries with simultaneous implant placement. At baseline and at the follow-up appointments, calibrated examiners measured radiographic interproximal bone level using ImageJ for Windows after calibration of the radiographs. References for the bone level measurements were the platform, first and second threads of the implants. Statistical analyses, using STATA version 12, stratified patients according to RAB height (group 1: RAB of ≤4 mm; n = 35 and group 2: RAB > 4 mm; n = 67), age, gender, and treatment center. RESULTS: The success rate was 100% for group 1 and 98.51% for group 2 at 6 to 100 months postprosthetic loading (mean = 29.7 months). The peri-implant bone loss averaged 0.55 mm (interquartile range [IQR] = 0.5 [0-1]) in group 1 and 0.07 mm (IQR = 0 [0-0]) in group 2. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Clinical outcomes were independent of age, gender, and treatment center. CONCLUSIONS: The RAB height did not increase crestal bone loss or reduce the success rate of the implants and associated prostheses. The crestal approach should be considered a viable technique for use in patients with residual bone height of ≤4 mm and merits further evaluation.

Concepts: Male, Statistics, Measurement, Metrology, Statistical significance, Interquartile range, Dental implant, Maxillary sinus


AIM:: To present first experience of the use N-butyl cyanoacrylate with metacryloxisulfolane (Glubran 2) synthetic surgical glue, in the nonsurgical closure of oroantral communication (OAC). MATERIAL AND METHODS:: Two OACs, created after the exodontia of tooth 27 in 2 female patients, were sealed and closed with Glubran 2 surgical glue and monitored OACs, until the epithelization of the sockets was ended successfully. Two months postclosure of OACs, the sealed OACs were evaluated on the panoramic image and Water’s view radiography. RESULTS:: The extraction wounds with OACs were monitored until 23rd and 25th postinterventional days, when epithelization of socket ended successfully. On the panoramic image and Water’s view radiography, there were no radiological signs of maxillary sinus pathoses. CONCLUSION:: Glubran 2 can be successfully applied in the closure of OAC from 3 to 5 mm in diameter.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Maxillary sinus, Metric space, Panorama


Antrochoanal polyp is a benign polypoid lesion orginating from the maxillary sinus antrum and extending to the choana. Our aim was to assess the clinical presentation and associated rhinological findings of antrochoanal polyp patients and to evaluate results of 2 surgical treatments termed endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and ESS plus mini-Caldwell operation. The study included 46 patients. Factors such as patient age, sex, history of chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, septal deviations, chonca bullosa, turbinate hypertrophy, and the origin of the polyp were assessed. We also evaluated ESS and ESS plus mini-Caldwell surgical procedures for recurrences, synechia, bleeding, and ostium stenosis. Overall, there were 27 men and 19 women. The ESS approach was used in 26 cases, and 20 cases had combined ESS and mini-Caldwell procedures. The statistical significant difference between the 2 groups was only recurrence (P ≤ 0.05). In the ESS group, bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis were seen more than in the ESS + mini-Caldwell group, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis (P > 0.05). We thought that lower rate of recurrence found in ESS + Caldwell group in this study was associated with better visualization of the maxillary sinus walls and, therefore, easier resection of the remnant polyp. We concluded that higher incidences of bleeding and synechia were related to the mucosal damage occurring in the septum and the inferior concha due to excessive manipulation of endoscope and surgical instruments.

Concepts: Surgery, Sinusitis, Allergy, Maxillary sinus, Rhinitis, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Concha bullosa, Inferior nasal concha


Purpose: Sinus floor elevation via the lateral window approach represents a reliable technique for augmenting bone volume in the atrophic posterior maxilla. However, controversy remains regarding the effect of placement of a barrier membrane over the lateral window. This histomorphometric meta-analysis sought to clarify the effect of barrier membranes in lateral window sinus augmentation. Materials and Methods: An electronic search of three databases and a hand search in implant-related journals for studies published through January 2013 in the English language was conducted. Randomized controlled trials, prospective human clinical studies, retrospective investigations, and case series reporting histomorphometric results after sinus elevation using the lateral window approach with at least six patients and a minimum follow-up period of 6 months were included. Results: The initial search yielded 1,040 articles, of which 94 were further evaluated for eligibility. Finally, 37 studies were chosen and separated into membrane (group 1) and no-membrane (group 2) groups. Similar vital bone formation was found in both groups: 32.36% for group 1 and 33.07% for group 2. Conclusion: Based upon this meta-analysis, the presence of a barrier membrane over the window does not influence the amount of vital bone formation after sinus augmentation. Additionally, the type of grafting material used and healing time did not influence the histomorphometric outcome.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Medical statistics, Randomized controlled trial, Evaluation methods, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Maxillary sinus


Segmental, depressed fractures of the posterolateral maxillary sinus may occur as a result of trauma to the masticator space, previously described in association with mandibular fractures. The authors hypothesize that the fracture is due to a transient increase in pressure in the masticator space (blow out) and therefore should be seen in association with other regional fractures.

Concepts: Bone fracture, Fracture, Sinusitis, Maxillary sinus, Terminal Reality, Blow Out, Cliff Curtis


Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the maxillary sinus is a rare malignancy of the head and neck. The location of this tumour near vital structures and its large size at presentation makes surgical resection with negative margins challenging. In incurable cases, relief from symptoms such as epistaxis may be achieved with radiation therapy. We present a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the maxillary sinus that was effectively palliated with a short course of radiation therapy, achieving complete cessation of bleeding, decrease in tumour size, and long term control. We surveyed the literature on mucoepidermoid carcinomas and propose that some tumours may be particularly radiosensitive, benefiting from even short courses of radiation therapy.

Concepts: Time, Medicine, Cancer, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Anatomical pathology, Head and neck cancer, Maxillary sinus