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Concept: Master's degree


ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to describe currently used educational strategies for teaching evidence-based practice (EBP) in entry-level master’s degree occupational therapy programs in the United States. Fifty-eight entry-level occupational therapy program directors completed a survey. Results showed that occupational therapy programs consistently use a wide variety of EBP resources for teaching EBP including database searches, literature reviews, and the development of a research proposal. Less commonly used strategies include the use of case stories and journal clubs. The current study provides a baseline of existing strategies taught in entry level programs that may be built upon to gather more information about the content of EBP coursework, and determine ways to foster implementation of EBP in practice.

Concepts: Teacher, School, Homework, United States, Bachelor's degree, Master's degree, Occupational therapy, Education


Among careers for biologists with PhDs, science communication is one of the most diverse and rewarding pathways. Myriad options exist, from traditional journalism to new media, from writing for specialists to working in public outreach. Textbooks, mass-market books, and freelance writing that combines many of these pursuits are all viable choices. Communicating about science allows researchers to step away from the minutiae of a subdiscipline and to once again explore the breadth of science more fully through an ever-evolving array of stories. A doctoral degree can confer distinct advantages in the eyes of prospective editors and employers. Here I describe those advantages, possible career directions, and steps toward making such a transition.

Concepts: Writing, Master's degree, Communication, Journalism, Media, Doctorate, Academic degree, Doctor of Philosophy


Despite decades of nutrition advocacy and programming, the nutrition situation in South Asian countries is alarming. We assume that modern training in nutrition at the post graduate level is an important contributor to building the capacity of individuals to think and act effectively when combating undernutrition. In this context, this paper presents a regional situation analysis of master’s level academic initiatives in nutrition with a special focus on the type of programme we think is most likely to be helpful in addressing undernutrition at the population level: Public Health Nutrition (PHN).

Concepts: Master's degree, Doctorate, Asia, Academia, Malnutrition, South Asia, Graduate school, Postgraduate education


The growth of Brazilian scientific production in recent years is remarkable, which motivates an investigation on the factors, inside and outside the country, that helped shape this wealthy research environment. This article provides a thorough analysis of the education of researchers that constitute the main Brazilian research groups, using data on about 6,000 researchers involved in the country’s National Institutes of Science and Technology (INCT) initiative. Data on the steps taken by each researcher in her education, from the bachelor’s degree to doctorate, including a possible postdoctoral experience, and employment, are extracted from an official curriculum vitae repository. The location and the time at which each career step occurred define spatiotemporal career trajectories. We then analyze such trajectories considering additional data, including the area of knowledge of the INCTs to which each researcher is associated. We found an increasing prevalence of Brazilian institutions in the education of Brazilian scientists, as the number of doctorates earned abroad is decreasing over time. Postdoctoral stages, on the other hand, often take place in Europe or in the United States. Taking an international postdoctoral position after a full education in Brazil suggests a drive towards seeking higher-level exchange and cooperation with foreign groups in a more advanced career stage. Results also show that Brazilian researchers tend to seek employment in regions that are close to the institutions at which they received their bachelor’s degrees, suggesting low mobility within the country. This study can be instrumental in defining public policies for correcting distortions, and can help other developing countries that aim to improve their national science systems.

Concepts: Science, Undergraduate education, Licentiate, Bachelor's degree, Research, Master's degree, United States, Academic degree


We investigate the relationship between social origin, postgraduate degree attainment, and occupational outcomes across five British age-group cohorts. We use recently-available UK Labour Force Survey data to conduct a series of logistic regressions of postgraduate (masters or doctorate) degree attainment among those with first degrees, with controls for measures of degree classification, degree subject, age, gender, ethnicity and national origin. We find a marked strengthening of the effect of class origin on degree- and occupational attainment across age cohorts. While for older generations there is little or no difference by class origin in the rates at which first-degree graduates attain postgraduate degrees, those with working-class-origins in the youngest age-group are only about 28 per cent as likely to obtain a postgraduate degree when compared with their peers from privileged origins. Moreover, social origin matters more for occupational destination, even among those with postgraduate degrees, for those in younger age groups. These findings demonstrate the newly important, and increasing, role of postgraduate degrees in reproducing socio-economic inequality in the wake of the substantial expansion of undergraduate and postgraduate education. Our findings lend some support to the Maximally Maintained Inequality thesis, suggesting that gains in equality of access to first-degrees are indeed at risk from postgraduate expansion.

Concepts: Madrasah, Master of Arts, Higher education, Undergraduate education, Doctorate, Master's degree, Postgraduate education, Academic degree


Doctoral snobbery exists. It’s a thing (Parnell, 2016). It’s an extension of ‘academic snobbery’ (Martin & Sorensen, 2014) more generally, and probably originates from ‘title snobbery’ (Valverde, Mueller, Paciotti, & Conway, 2016). Successfully completing a doctoral qualification is no small achievement and so some degree of elitism is probably reasonable. But is it reasonable for there to be an elitist division between the traditional PhD and the relative newcomer, the professional doctorate? And what about the doctorate in nursing practice (DNP) now apparently overtaking the PhD in the USA? Our recent participation in a round table on doctoral education in Hong Kong prompted us to explore the issue further and, by implication, to invite further comment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Master's degree, Nursing, All rights reserved, Copyright, Doctoral degrees, Doctor of Philosophy, Academic degree, Doctorate


With the recognition of the need for research capacity strengthening for advancing health and development, this research capacity article explores the use of technology enhanced learning in the delivery of a collaborative postgraduate blended Master’s degree in Malawi. Two research questions are addressed: (i) Can technology enhanced learning be used to develop health research capacity?, and: (ii) How can learning content be designed that is transferrable across different contexts?

Concepts: Diplom, Licentiate, Bachelor's degree, Development, Postgraduate education, Doctorate, Academic degree, Master's degree


Brooke Flammang is an Assistant Professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, where she investigates how organisms interact with their environment and how these interactions drive the evolutionary selection of morphology and function. She received her Bachelor’s degree in Marine Biology from Fairleigh Dickinson University before moving to Moss Landing Marine Laboratories for her Master’s degree and completing her PhD with George Lauder at Harvard University in 2010. She was awarded the Dorothy H. Skinner award in 2013 and the Carl Gans award in 2017 by the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology.

Concepts: Fairleigh Dickinson University, Licentiate, Bachelor's degree, Diplom, Master's degree, University, Doctorate, Academic degree


Nursing is a relatively new profession throughout the world. In the USA, the first Bachelor of Science in nursing (BSN) degree was granted by Yale University in 1937, and it was not until the mid-1950s that there were graduate degrees in nursing science. Thus, nursing education is uniquely positioned to be nimble and build an infrastructure appropriate to the complexity of contemporary and future healthcare challenges. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Licentiate, Doctorate, Master's degree, Bachelor's degree, Academic degree


While there is a wealth of research evidencing the benefits of active-learning approaches, the extent to which these teaching practices are adopted in the sciences is not well known. The aim of this study is to establish an evidential baseline of teaching practices across a bachelor of science degree program at a large research-intensive Australian university. Our purpose is to contribute to knowledge on the adoption levels of evidence-based teaching practices by faculty within a science degree program and inform our science curriculum review in practical terms. We used the Teaching Practices Inventory (TPI) to measure the use of evidence-based teaching approaches in 129 courses (units of study) across 13 departments. We compared the results with those from a Canadian institution to identify areas in need of improvement at our institution. We applied a regression analysis to the data and found that the adoption of evidence-based teaching practices differs by discipline and is higher in first-year classes at our institution. The study demonstrates that the TPI can be used in different institutional contexts and provides data that can inform practice and policy.

Concepts: Master's degree, Licentiate, Epistemology, Undergraduate education, Higher education, Bachelor of Science, Academic degree, Bachelor's degree