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Concept: Market economy

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Over the past decade, several countries across all regions, income groups and procurement methods have been unable to secure sufficient BCG vaccine supply. While the frequency of stock-outs has remained rather stable, duration increased in 2014-2015 due to manufacturing issues and attracted the attention of national, regional and global immunization stakeholders. This prompted an in-depth analysis of supply and demand dynamics aiming to characterize supply risks. This analysis is unique as it provides a global picture, where previous analyses have focused on a portion of the market procuring through UN entities. Through literature review, supplier interviews, appraisal of shortages, stock-outs and historical procurement data, and through demand forecasting, this analysis shows an important increase in global capacity in 2017: supply is sufficient to meet forecasted BCG vaccine demand and possibly buffer market shocks. Nevertheless, risks remain mainly due to supply concentration and limited investment in production process improvements, as well as inflexibility in demand. Identification of these market risks will allow implementation of risk-mitigating interventions in three areas: (1) enhancing information sharing between major global health actors, countries and suppliers, (2) identifying interests and incentives to expand product registration and investment in the BCG manufacturing process, and (3) working with countries for tighter vaccine management.

Concepts: Supply and demand, Consumer theory, Microeconomics, Market, Market economy, Economic surplus, Inverse demand function, Islamic economics in the world

10

BACKGROUND: Here, the educational and labour market characteristics of Mexican dentists are revised. Dentistry is a health profession that has been scarcely studied in developing countries. This analysis attempts to understand the relationships and gaps between the supply and demand of dentists in the country. Around 5000 new dentists graduate every year looking for a placein the labour market. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with exploratory, descriptive and correlational scope was carried out between 2006 and 2008.Analyses of quantitative data on dentists from national surveys and occupational statistics were complemented with qualitative information provided by 43 key informants in five Mexican states. RESULTS: The 2008 dentist labour market can be characterized as follows: 75% worked in the private sector, most of them independently; more than two-thirdswere women; the proportion of specialists was low (slightly more than 10%); unemployment wasmore than 20% and labour wastagewasnearly 40%, with most wastage corresponding withfemale dentists. The increase in the number of dentists entering the labour market during the last two decades is more related to the educational market than to the population'shealth needs and the number of dentists actually required to meet them. CONCLUSIONS: The problems identified in the Mexican dentist labour market necessitate urgent intervention on behalf of regulatory bodiesin order to balance the tendencies of supply and demand in the number of trained professionals as well as in their incorporation into different market areas. Adequate policiesare required to increase the likelihood of achieving this objective.

Concepts: Physician, Qualitative research, Dental implant, Quantitative research, Supply and demand, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Market economy

2

A number of researchers have reported studies showing that subtle reminders of money can alter behaviors and beliefs that are seemingly unrelated to money. In 1 set of studies published in this journal, Caruso, Vohs, Baxter, and Waytz (2013) found that incidental exposures to money led subjects to indicate greater support for inequality, socioeconomic differences, group-based discrimination, and free market economies. We conducted high-powered replication attempts of these 4 money priming effects and found no evidence of priming (weighted Cohen’s d = 0.03). We later learned that Caruso et al. also found several null effects in their line of research that were not reported in the original article. In addition, the money priming effect observed in the first study of Caruso et al. was included in the Many Labs Replication Project (Klein et al., 2014), and only 1 of the 36 labs was able to find the effect. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Scientific method, Sociology, Meta-analysis, Statistical power, Market, Market economy, Mixed economy, Free market

0

To present experiences gained during the planning, implementation, and practical performance of the rapid assessment of avoidable blindness with diabetic retinopathy module (RAAB+DR) in an established market economy.

Concepts: Diabetic retinopathy, Market economy, Planned economy

0

The hospital value-based purchasing (HVBP) program of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services challenges hospitals to deliver high-quality care or face a reduction in Medicare payments. How do different organizational structures and market characteristics enable or inhibit successful transition to this new model of value-based care? To address that question, this study employs an institutional theory lens to test whether certain organizational structures and market characteristics mediate hospitals' ability to perform across HVBP domains.Data from the 2014 American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, Area Health Resource File, the Medicare Hospital Compare Database, and the association between external environment and hospital performance are assessed through multiple regression analysis. Results indicate that hospitals that belong to a system are more likely than independent hospitals to score highly on the domains associated with the HVBP incentive arrangement. However, varying and sometimes counterintuitive market influences bring different dimensions to the HVBP program. A hospital’s ability to score well in this new value arrangement may be heavily based on the organization’s ability to learn from others, implement change, and apply the appropriate amount of control in various markets.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Health insurance, Econometrics, Organization, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Hospital accreditation, Market economy

0

The availability of health personnel in the rural areas of poor countries is generally seen as problematic. This paper contrasts a lottery-based assignment of personnel between rural and urban areas to a free-market solution in which personnel are paid a premium to accept a rural posting. The lottery system can lower total cost and increase the number of personnel in rural areas. The model benchmarked with published estimates of the premium that would be required under a free market suggests gains from the lottery could be substantial.

Concepts: City, Economics, Rural area, Market, Market economy, Capitalism, Mixed economy, Free market

0

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), moderate visual impairment (MVI), and early visual impairment (EVI) and its causes in an established market economy of Europe.

Concepts: Visual impairment, Market economy

0

The association between farmers' market characteristics and consumer shopping habits remains unclear. Our objective was to examine associations among distance to farmers' markets, amenities within farmers' markets, frequency of farmers' market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that the relationship between frequency of farmers' market shopping and BMI would be mediated by fruit and vegetable consumption.

Concepts: United States, Body mass index, The Association, Southern United States, Market, Market economy, Farmers' market, Street market

0

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection peaks during childhood and varies by sex. The impact of market integration (MI) (increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy) on these infection patterns, however, is unclear. In this study, STH infection is examined by sex and age among indigenous Shuar inhabiting two regions of Amazonian Ecuador: (1) the modestly market-integrated Upano Valley (UV) and (2) the more traditional Cross-CutucĂș (CC) region.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Nematodes, Whipworm, Region, Market, Market economy, Planned economy, Ascaris lumbricoides

0

Taller workers earn more, particularly in lower income settings. It has been argued that adult height is a marker of strength which is rewarded in the labor market; a proxy for cognitive performance or other dimensions of human capital such as school quality; a proxy for health status; and a proxy for family background and genetic characteristics. As a result, the argument goes, height is rewarded in the labor market because it is an informative signal of worker quality to an employer. It has also been argued that the height premium is driven by occupational and sectoral choice. This paper evaluates the relative importance of these potential mechanisms underlying the link between adult stature and labor market productivity in a specific low income setting, rural Central Java, Indonesia. Drawing on twelve waves of longitudinal survey data, we establish that height predicts hourly earnings after controlling education, multiple indicators of cognitive performance and physical health status, measures of family background, sectoral and occupational choice, as well as local area market characteristics. The height premium is large and significant in both the wage and self-employed sectors indicating height is not only a signal of worker quality to employers. Since adult stature is largely determined in the first few years of life, we conclude that exposures during this critical period have an enduring impact on labor market productivity.

Concepts: Genetics, Health, Epidemiology, Human, Human height, Employment, Market economy, Jacob Mincer