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Concept: MapReduce


Bioinformatics is challenged by the fact that traditional analysis tools have difficulty in processing large-scale data from high-throughput sequencing. The open source Apache Hadoop project, which adopts the MapReduce framework and a distributed file system, has recently given bioinformatics researchers an opportunity to achieve scalable, efficient and reliable computing performance on Linux clusters and on cloud computing services. In this article, we present MapReduce frame-based applications that can be employed in the next-generation sequencing and other biological domains. In addition, we discuss the challenges faced by this field as well as the future works on parallel computing in bioinformatics.

Concepts: Future, Hadoop, Cloud computing, Grid computing, Linux, Google, File system, MapReduce


Pattern mining is one of the most important tasks to extract meaningful and useful information from raw data. This task aims to extract item-sets that represent any type of homogeneity and regularity in data. Although many efficient algorithms have been developed in this regard, the growing interest in data has caused the performance of existing pattern mining techniques to be dropped. The goal of this paper is to propose new efficient pattern mining algorithms to work in big data. To this aim, a series of algorithms based on the MapReduce framework and the Hadoop open-source implementation have been proposed. The proposed algorithms can be divided into three main groups. First, two algorithms [Apriori MapReduce (AprioriMR) and iterative AprioriMR] with no pruning strategy are proposed, which extract any existing item-set in data. Second, two algorithms (space pruning AprioriMR and top AprioriMR) that prune the search space by means of the well-known anti-monotone property are proposed. Finally, a last algorithm (maximal AprioriMR) is also proposed for mining condensed representations of frequent patterns. To test the performance of the proposed algorithms, a varied collection of big data datasets have been considered, comprising up to 3 · 10#x00B9;⁸ transactions and more than 5 million of distinct single-items. The experimental stage includes comparisons against highly efficient and well-known pattern mining algorithms. Results reveal the interest of applying MapReduce versions when complex problems are considered, and also the unsuitability of this paradigm when dealing with small data.

Concepts: Algorithm, Mathematics, Pattern, Task, Proposal, Mining, MapReduce


The rapid development of remote sensing (RS) technology has resulted in the proliferation of high-resolution images. There are challenges involved in not only storing large volumes of RS images but also in rapidly retrieving the images for ocean disaster analysis such as for storm surges and typhoon warnings. In this paper, we present an efficient retrieval of massive ocean RS images via a Cloud-based mean-shift algorithm. Distributed construction method via the pyramid model is proposed based on the maximum hierarchical layer algorithm and used to realize efficient storage structure of RS images on the Cloud platform. We achieve high-performance processing of massive RS images in the Hadoop system. Based on the pyramid Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) storage method, an improved mean-shift algorithm for RS image retrieval is presented by fusion with the canopy algorithm via Hadoop MapReduce programming. The results show that the new method can achieve better performance for data storage than HDFS alone and WebGIS-based HDFS. Speedup and scaleup are very close to linear changes with an increase of RS images, which proves that image retrieval using our method is efficient.

Concepts: Remote sensing, Hadoop, MapReduce


This paper presents MarDRe, a de novo cloud-ready duplicate and near-duplicate removal tool that can process single-end and paired-end reads from FASTQ/FASTA datasets. MarDRe takes advantage of the widely adopted MapReduce programming model to fully exploit Big Data technologies on cloud-based infrastructures. Written in Java to maximize cross-platform compatibility, MarDRe is built upon the open-source Apache Hadoop project, the most popular distributed computing framework for scalable Big Data processing. On a 16-node cluster deployed on the Amazon EC2 cloud platform, MarDRe is up to 8.52 times faster than a representative state-of-the-art tool.

Concepts: Computer, Computer program, PHP, Hadoop, Cloud computing,, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, MapReduce


Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) raw data simulation is a fundamental problem in radar system design and imaging algorithm research. The growth of surveying swath and resolution results in a significant increase in data volume and simulation period, which can be considered to be a comprehensive data intensive and computing intensive issue. Although several high performance computing (HPC) methods have demonstrated their potential for accelerating simulation, the input/output (I/O) bottleneck of huge raw data has not been eased. In this paper, we propose a cloud computing based SAR raw data simulation algorithm, which employs the MapReduce model to accelerate the raw data computing and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) for fast I/O access. The MapReduce model is designed for the irregular parallel accumulation of raw data simulation, which greatly reduces the parallel efficiency of graphics processing unit (GPU) based simulation methods. In addition, three kinds of optimization strategies are put forward from the aspects of programming model, HDFS configuration and scheduling. The experimental results show that the cloud computing based algorithm achieves 4_ speedup over the baseline serial approach in an 8-node cloud environment, and each optimization strategy can improve about 20%. This work proves that the proposed cloud algorithm is capable of solving the computing intensive and data intensive issues in SAR raw data simulation, and is easily extended to large scale computing to achieve higher acceleration.

Concepts: Parallel computing, Computer, Radar, Hadoop, Cloud computing, Aperture synthesis, Synthetic aperture radar, MapReduce


The maximal information coefficient (MIC) has been proposed to discover relationships and associations between pairs of variables. It poses significant challenges for bioinformatics scientists to accelerate the MIC calculation, especially in genome sequencing and biological annotations. In this paper we explore a parallel approach which uses MapReduce framework to improve the computing efficiency and throughput of the MIC computation. The acceleration system includes biological data storage on HDFS, preprocessing algorithms, distributed memory cache mechanism, and the partition of MapReduce jobs. Based on the acceleration approach, we extend the traditional two-variable algorithm to multiple variables algorithm. The experimental results show that our parallel solution provides a linear speedup comparing with original algorithm without affecting the correctness and sensitivity.

Concepts: DNA, Algorithm, Molecular biology, Parallel computing, Computer, Acceleration, Computer science, MapReduce


Secondary use of medical big data is increasingly popular in healthcare services and clinical research. Understanding the logic behind medical big data demonstrates tendencies in hospital information technology and shows great significance for hospital information systems that are designing and expanding services. Big data has four characteristics - Volume, Variety, Velocity and Value (the 4 Vs) - that make traditional systems incapable of processing these data using standalones. Apache Hadoop MapReduce is a promising software framework for developing applications that process vast amounts of data in parallel with large clusters of commodity hardware in a reliable, fault-tolerant manner. With the Hadoop framework and MapReduce application program interface (API), we can more easily develop our own MapReduce applications to run on a Hadoop framework that can scale up from a single node to thousands of machines. This paper investigates a practical case of a Hadoop-based medical big data processing system. We developed this system to intelligently process medical big data and uncover some features of hospital information system user behaviors. This paper studies user behaviors regarding various data produced by different hospital information systems for daily work. In this paper, we also built a five-node Hadoop cluster to execute distributed MapReduce algorithms. Our distributed algorithms show promise in facilitating efficient data processing with medical big data in healthcare services and clinical research compared with single nodes. Additionally, with medical big data analytics, we can design our hospital information systems to be much more intelligent and easier to use by making personalized recommendations.

Concepts: Medicine, Data, Computer program, Application programming interface, Information systems, Hadoop, Hospital information system, MapReduce


The emergence of massive datasets in a clinical setting presents both challenges and opportunities in data storage and analysis. This so called “big data” challenges traditional analytic tools and will increasingly require novel solutions adapted from other fields. Advances in information and communication technology present the most viable solutions to big data analysis in terms of efficiency and scalability. It is vital those big data solutions are multithreaded and that data access approaches be precisely tailored to large volumes of semi-structured/unstructured data. THE MAPREDUCE PROGRAMMING FRAMEWORK USES TWO TASKS COMMON IN FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING: Map and Reduce. MapReduce is a new parallel processing framework and Hadoop is its open-source implementation on a single computing node or on clusters. Compared with existing parallel processing paradigms (e.g. grid computing and graphical processing unit (GPU)), MapReduce and Hadoop have two advantages: 1) fault-tolerant storage resulting in reliable data processing by replicating the computing tasks, and cloning the data chunks on different computing nodes across the computing cluster; 2) high-throughput data processing via a batch processing framework and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS). Data are stored in the HDFS and made available to the slave nodes for computation. In this paper, we review the existing applications of the MapReduce programming framework and its implementation platform Hadoop in clinical big data and related medical health informatics fields. The usage of MapReduce and Hadoop on a distributed system represents a significant advance in clinical big data processing and utilization, and opens up new opportunities in the emerging era of big data analytics. The objective of this paper is to summarize the state-of-the-art efforts in clinical big data analytics and highlight what might be needed to enhance the outcomes of clinical big data analytics tools. This paper is concluded by summarizing the potential usage of the MapReduce programming framework and Hadoop platform to process huge volumes of clinical data in medical health informatics related fields.

Concepts: Data, Data analysis, Parallel computing, Computer program, Hadoop, Grid computing, MapReduce, Sun Grid Engine


Explosive growth of next-generation sequencing data has resulted in ultra-large-scale data sets and ensuing computational problems. Cloud computing provides an on-demand and scalable environment for large-scale data analysis. Using a MapReduce framework, data and workload can be distributed via a network to computers in the cloud to substantially reduce computational latency. Hadoop/MapReduce has been successfully adopted in bioinformatics for genome assembly, mapping reads to genomes, and finding single nucleotide polymorphisms. Major cloud providers offer Hadoop cloud services to their users. However, it remains technically challenging to deploy a Hadoop cloud for those who prefer to run MapReduce programs in a cluster without built-in Hadoop/MapReduce.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Bioinformatics, Molecular biology, Genomics, Computer, Cloud computing, MapReduce


Many time-consuming analyses of next generation sequencing data can be addressed with modern cloud computing. The Apache Hadoop-based solutions have become popular in genomics due to their scalability in a cloud infrastructure. So far, most of these tools have been used for batch data processing rather than interactive data querying. The SparkSeq software has been created to take advantage of a new MapReduce framework, Apache Spark, for next generation sequencing data. SparkSeq is a general-purpose, flexible and easily extendable library for genomic cloud computing. It can be used to build genomic analysis pipelines in Scala and run them in an interactive way. SparkSeq opens up the possibility of customised ad hoc secondary analyses and iterative machine learning algorithms. This paper demonstrates its scalability and overall very fast performance by running the analyses of sequencing datasets. Tests of SparkSeq also prove that the use of cache and HDFS block size can to be tuned for the optimal performance on multiple worker nodes. Availability and Implementation: Available under open source Apache 2.0 license: SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary information available as a file attached to the manuscript.

Concepts: Scientific method, Bioinformatics, Data, Machine learning, Learning, Star Trek: The Next Generation, Scalability, MapReduce