SciCombinator

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Concept: Mantle zone

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Although ibrutinib is highly effective in patients with relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a substantial proportion of patients have resistant disease. The subsequent outcomes of such patients are unknown.

Concepts: Cancer, Chemotherapy, Lymphoma, Mantle cell lymphoma, Mantle zone

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Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a more heterogeneous disease than originally recognized. Several groups have reported on a subgroup of patients with a less aggressive course than expected resulting in the term “indolent MCL”. Unlike the recognized histologic variants, the definition of indolent mantle cell lymphoma is unclear, and patients with indolent MCL are often identified only after having undergone prolonged periods of observation. In this review, we will discuss clinical and biologic features and provide a framework for the approach in identifying patients with indolent MCL.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Mantle cell lymphoma, 2004 albums, Mantle zone

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Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is considered as an attractive treatment option for young mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients. This retrospective SFGM-TC study analyzed the outcome of 500 MCL patients treated with ASCT and investigated parameters that may modify the outcome of patients who proceeded to ASCT upfront (n = 396). For all patients, median age at ASCT was 56 years (range, 26-71). Median follow-up was 34 months. Three-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 63.5 % [95 % CI, 58.7-68.6 %] and 79.5 % [95 % CI, 75.3-83.4 %], respectively. Median time from ASCT to relapse was 22 months (range, 0-136 m). For patients transplanted upfront and in multivariate analysis, age (HR = 2 [1.2-3.4], p = .01, and HR = 2.3 [1.2-4.5], p = .01), disease status at time of ASCT (HR = 1.7 [1.1-2.6], p = .01 and HR = 1.8 [1.1-3.1], p = .03), and use of rituximab (HR = 0.5 [0.3-0.8], p = .002 and HR = 0.5 [0.3-0.9], p = .01) were statistically predictive for both PFS and OS. Also, first line treatment including anthracycline and high-dose cytarabine followed by ASCT conditioned with TAM improved PFS. To conclude, this study suggests that ASCT in MCL can provide a high response rate but may not be sufficient to cure MCL even when ASCT is performed upfront, highlighting the need for innovative approaches before ASCT, aiming to increase complete response rate, and after ASCT, to maintain response.

Concepts: Response rate, Chemotherapy, Median, Multivariate statistics, Organ transplant, Mantle cell lymphoma, Mantle zone

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ABSTRACT CALGB designed a phase II trial of lenalidomide+bortezomib for relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Induction therapy was lenalidomide (days 1-14) plus bortezomib (days ¼/8/11), every 21 days for eight cycles. Complete and partial responders (CR, PR) received maintenance lenalidomide (days 1-14) and bortezomib (days 1/8), every 21 days. Primary endpoint was overall response rate; secondary endpoints were CR rate, progression-free- (PFS), event-free- (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Fifty-three eligible patients, median age 67 years, were accrued. Median number of cycles received was 4 (range, 1-82). Median follow-up is 46 (range, 12-67) months. Best response was CR (n=8, 15%), PR (n=13, 25%). 5/8 CR and 4/13 PR patients received maintenance therapy. Of responders, 6 CR/1 PR patients remain in remission at a median of 3.2 years. Thirty-three (62%) patients have died. One-year PFS, EFS, OS are 40%, 25%, and 68%, respectively. This combination will not be pursued further at this dose/schedule.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Lenalidomide, Median, Mantle cell lymphoma, Mantle zone, Order statistic

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The PI3Kδ inhibitor idelalisib was effective in heavily pretreated patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

Concepts: Mantle cell lymphoma, Mantle zone

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The observational MCL-004 study evaluated outcomes in patients with relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma who received lenalidomide-based therapy after ibrutinib failure or intolerance.

Concepts: Scientific method, Observational study, Mantle cell lymphoma, Mantle zone

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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive disease, with poor prognosis and a limited survival. However, some patients with indolent MCL can survive beyond 7~10 years. These patients remain largely asymptomatic and can be in observation for a long time without any treatment. The process of “wait and watch” leaves these patients with the potential risk of evolution to classic, aggressive MCL. On the other hand, early treatment for these patients may not impact overall survival but rather affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is essential to clearly identify this type of indolent MCL at the time of diagnosis.

Concepts: Medical terms, Life, Quality, Medical diagnosis, Mantle cell lymphoma, Mantle zone

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High dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) improves outcomes for patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), but relapse ultimately occurs in most patients. Recently presented interim results from a phase III prospective trial suggest maintenance rituximab (MR) after ASCT for MCL improves progression-free survival (PFS). The maturation of these data and any benefit of MR on overall survival (OS) remain to be defined.

Concepts: Chemotherapy, Organ transplant, Mantle cell lymphoma, Mantle zone

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In recent decades, the prognosis of Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) has been significantly improved by intensified first-line regimens containing cytarabine, rituximab and consolidation with high-dose-therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. One such strategy is the Nordic MCL2 regimen, developed by the Nordic Lymphoma Group. We here present the 15-year updated results of the Nordic MCL2 study after a median follow-up of 11·4 years: For all patients on an intent-to-treat basis, the median overall and progression-free survival was 12·7 and 8·5 years, respectively. The MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI), biological MIPI, including Ki67 expression (MIPI-B) and the MIPI-B including mIR-18b expression (MIPI-B-miR), in particular, significantly divided patients into distinct risk groups. Despite very long response durations of the low and intermediate risk groups, we observed a continuous pattern of relapse and the survival curves never reached a plateau. In conclusion, despite half of the patients being still alive and 40% in first remission after more than 12 years, we still see an excess disease-related mortality, even among patients experiencing long remissions. Even though we consider the Nordic regimen as a very good choice of regimen, we recommend inclusion in prospective studies to explore the benefit of novel agents in the frontline treatment of MCL.

Concepts: Gene, Cell, Cell biology, Chemotherapy regimens, Prognosis, Mantle cell lymphoma, International Prognostic Index, Mantle zone

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Central nervous system (CNS) relapse is an uncommon but challenging complication in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Survival after CNS relapse is extremely poor. Identification of high-risk populations is therefore critical in determining patients who might be candidates for a prophylactic approach.

Concepts: Central nervous system, Nervous system, Brain, Mantle cell lymphoma, Mantle zone