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Concept: Mammary tumor

165

BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a self-catabolic mechanism that degrades unnecessary cellular components through lysosomal enzymes. Beclin-1, an autophagy-related protein, establishes the first connection between autophagy and tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study is to assess the Beclin-1 expression pattern and to determine its prognostic significance in patients with malignant canine mammary tumor (CMT).

Concepts: Breast cancer, Mammary tumors, Oncology, Cancer, Mammary tumor, Mammary gland, Cell

163

The diagnosis of breast lesions is usually confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histological biopsy. Although there is increasing literature regarding the advantages and limitations of both modalities, there is no literature regarding the accuracy of these modalities for diagnosing breast lesions in high-risk patients, who usually have lesions detected by screening. Moreover, few studies have been published regarding the cytopathology of mammary tumors in cats despite widespread use of the animal model for breast cancer formation and inhibition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic interest of cytological and histopathological analysis in feline mammary tumours (FMTs), in order to evaluate its possible value as an animal model.

Concepts: Breast, Breast cancer, Needle aspiration biopsy, Mammary gland, Anatomical pathology, Pathology, Mammary tumor, Cancer

68

While many studies have shown that maternal weight and nutrition in pregnancy affects offspring’s breast cancer risk, no studies have investigated the impact of paternal body weight on daughters' risk of this disease. Here, we show that diet-induced paternal overweight around the time of conception can epigenetically reprogram father’s germ-line and modulate their daughters' birth weight and likelihood of developing breast cancer, using a mouse model. Increased body weight was associated with changes in the miRNA expression profile in paternal sperm. Daughters of overweight fathers had higher rates of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors which were associated with delayed mammary gland development and alterations in mammary miRNA expression. The hypoxia signaling pathway, targeted by miRNAs down-regulated in daughters of overweight fathers, was activated in their mammary tissues and tumors. This study provides evidence that paternal peri-conceptional body weight may affect daughters' mammary development and breast cancer risk and warrants further studies in other animal models and humans.

Concepts: Paternal bond, Prolactin, Obesity, Breast, Breast cancer, Mammary tumor, Mammary gland, Cancer

55

Many common environmental chemicals are mammary gland carcinogens in animal studies, activate relevant hormonal pathways, or enhance mammary gland susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Breast cancer’s long latency and multifactorial etiology make evaluation of these chemicals in humans challenging.

Concepts: Organ, Breast cancer, Mammary tumor, Mammary gland, Mammal, Exocrine gland, Breast, Cancer

38

Folic acid supplementation may prevent the development of cancer in normal tissues but may promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic lesions. However, whether or not folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic mammary lesions is unknown. This is a critically important issue because breast cancer patients and survivors in North America are likely exposed to high levels of folic acid owing to folic acid fortification and widespread supplemental use after cancer diagnosis. We investigated whether folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established mammary tumors. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control diet and mammary tumors were initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenza[a]anthracene at puberty. When the sentinel tumor reached a predefined size, rats were randomized to receive a diet containing the control, 2.5x, 4x, or 5x supplemental levels of folic acid for up to 12 weeks. The sentinel mammary tumor growth was monitored weekly. At necropsy, the sentinel and all other mammary tumors were analyzed histologically. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the expression of proteins involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and mammary tumorigenesis was determined in representative sentinel adenocarcinomas. Although no clear dose-response relationship was observed, folic acid supplementation significantly promoted the progression of the sentinel mammary tumors and was associated with significantly higher sentinel mammary tumor weight and volume compared with the control diet. Furthermore, folic acid supplementation was associated with significantly higher weight and volume of all mammary tumors. The most significant and consistent mammary tumor-promoting effect was observed with the 2.5x supplemental level of folic acid. Folic acid supplementation was also associated with an increased expression of BAX, PARP, and HER2. Our data suggest that folic acid supplementation may promote the progression of established mammary tumors. The potential tumor-promoting effect of folic acid supplementation in breast cancer patients and survivors needs further clarification.

Concepts: Anatomical pathology, Breast, Mammary gland, Mammary tumor, Oncology, Folic acid, Cancer, Breast cancer

32

Epidemiologic studies have shown that dietary sugar intake has a significant impact on the development of breast cancer. One proposed mechanism for how sugar impacts cancer development involves inflammation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of dietary sugar on mammary gland tumor development in multiple mouse models, along with mechanisms that may be involved. We found that sucrose intake in mice comparable with levels of Western diets led to increased tumor growth and metastasis, when compared with a nonsugar starch diet. This effect was ascribed in part to increased expression of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) and its arachidonate metabolite 12-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). We determined that fructose derived from the sucrose was responsible for facilitating lung metastasis and 12-HETE production in breast tumors. Overall, our data suggested that dietary sugar induces 12-LOX signaling to increase risks of breast cancer development and metastasis. Cancer Res; 76(1); 24-29. ©2016 AACR.

Concepts: Tumor, Oncology, Breast, Mammary gland, Mammary tumor, Metastasis, Breast cancer, Cancer

27

The interplay between host genetics, tumor microenvironment and environmental exposure in cancer susceptibility remains poorly understood. Here we assessed the genetic control of stromal mediation of mammary tumor susceptibility to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) using backcrossed F1 into BALB/c (F1Bx) between cancer susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (SPRET/EiJ) mouse strains. Tumor formation was evaluated after transplantation of non-irradiated Trp53-/- BALB/c mammary gland fragments into cleared fat pads of F1Bx hosts. Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed 2 genetic loci that constitute the baseline susceptibility via host microenvironment. However, once challenged with LDIR, we discovered 13 additional loci that were enriched for genes involved in cytokines, including TGFβ1 signaling. Surprisingly, LDIR-treated F1Bx cohort significantly reduced incidence of mammary tumors from Trp53-/- fragments as well as prolonged tumor latency, compared to sham-treated controls. We demonstrated further that plasma levels of specific cytokines were significantly correlated with tumor latency. Using an ex vivo 3-D assay, we confirmed TGFβ1 as a strong candidate for reduced mammary invasion in SPRET/EiJ, which could explain resistance of this strain to mammary cancer risk following LDIR. Our results open possible new avenues to understand mechanisms of genes operating via the stroma that affect cancer risk from external environmental exposures.

Concepts: Ionizing radiation, Genetics, Gene, Tumor, Breast cancer, Mammary tumor, Mammary gland, Cancer

27

Mammary cancer is the most common tumor in female dogs. Canine mammary tumor serves as an excellent model for human breast cancer biology. Cancer cell lines are routinely used as the source of protein for proteomics studies because antigen homogeneity is essential for protein profiling of tumors. In this study, we sought to isolate and characterize a canine mammary cell line that was subject to protein profiling analysis through 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) method. Mammary tumor was collected from a 6-year-old terrier dog. Tumor fragments were treated with collagenase, and dissociated cells were cultured. The cell line was subcultured over 50 times. Characterization profile included population doubling time, colony forming assay, spheroid formation/migration potency, immunocytochemistry for steroid receptors and intermediate filaments, karyotyping, RT-PCR for cytokeratins 8, 14, and 18, and 2-DE pattern. The cell line revealed three growth phases including normal, dormant, and immortal phase. Immunocytochemistry showed that the cell line was positive for estrogen receptor, pancytokeratin, cytokeratin-low and vimentin, and negative for progesterone receptor, cytokeratin-high. RT-PCR supported the immunocytochemistry results. 2-DE pattern and proteome analysis of the cell line revealed that protein composition was stable, indicating the cell line as an appropriate source of protein for canine mammary proteomics studies.

Concepts: Estrogen, Mammary gland, Proteomics, Cancer, Cell biology, Mammary tumor, Protein, Breast cancer

27

RIII/Sa and C3H mice harbour milk-borne mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) and develop mammary tumours at a high incidence. These mammary tumours usually arise ventrally and/or on the sides of the animals. In the present study, some mice of both strains were observed to have tumours in the dorsal neck area. Histological analysis of the tumours indicated their similarity to mammary tumours induced by MMTV oncogenesis. The neck tumours were found by thin-section electron microscopy to contain both type A and type B particles that are hallmarks of MMTV infection. In addition, the neck tumour DNA possessed insertion mutations of Wnt-1 and Fgf-3 proto-oncogenes, the activation of which play important roles in the development of mouse mammary tumours. These neck tumours appear to be mammary tumours that arise in the context of in-situ mammary tissue, similar to rare ‘ectopic’ human breast cancers that arise in the axillary region and other sites remote from the breast.

Concepts: Breast, Oncology, Histology, Benign tumor, Breast cancer, Mammary gland, Mammary tumor, Cancer

27

Maternal exposures to environmental factors during pregnancy influence the risk of many chronic adult-onset diseases in the offspring. Here we investigate whether feeding pregnant rats a high-fat (HF)- or ethinyl-oestradiol (EE2)-supplemented diet affects carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in daughters, granddaughters and great-granddaughters. We show that mammary tumourigenesis is higher in daughters and granddaughters of HF rat dams and in daughters and great-granddaughters of EE2 rat dams. Outcross experiments suggest that the increase in mammary cancer risk is transmitted to HF granddaughters equally through the female or male germ lines, but it is only transmitted to EE2 granddaughters through the female germ line. The effects of maternal EE2 exposure on offspring’s mammary cancer risk are associated with changes in the DNA methylation machinery and methylation patterns in mammary tissue of all three EE2 generations. We conclude that dietary and oestrogenic exposures in pregnancy increase breast cancer risk in multiple generations of offspring, possibly through epigenetic means.

Concepts: Mammary tumor, Oxytocin, Pregnancy, Breast, Breast cancer, DNA methylation, Mammary gland, Prolactin