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Concept: Magnolia grandiflora

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Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Melanin, Herbalism, Melanocyte, Tyrosinase, Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora

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The hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumour with high level of mortality rate due to its rapid progression and high resistance to conventional chemotherapies. Thus, the search for novel therapeutic leads is of global interest. Herein, a small set of derivatives of magnolol 1 and honokiol 2, the main components of Magnolia grandiflora and Magnolia obovata, were evaluated in in vitro assay using tumoral hepatocytes. The pro-drug approach was applied as versatile strategy to the improve bioactivity of the compounds by careful transformation of the hydroxyl groups of magnolol 1 and honokiol 2 in suitable ester derivatives. Compounds 10 and 11 resulted to be more potent than the parental honokiol 2 at concentration down to 1 μM with complete viability of treated fibroblast cells up to concentrations of 80 μM. The combination of a butyrate ester and a bare phenol-OH group in the honokiol structure seemed to play a significant role in the antiproliferative activity identifying an interesting pharmacological clue against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Tumor, Neoplasm, Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia obovata

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Pantoea americana strain VS1, an extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing epibiont, was isolated from Magnolia grandiflora in central Florida, USA. Here, we report the de novo whole-genome sequence of this strain, which consists of a total of 191 contigs spanning 5,412,831 bp, with a GC content of 57.3% and comprising 4,836 predicted coding sequences.

Concepts: DNA, Natural number, Florida, Partially ordered set, Magnolia grandiflora

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Bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of Magnolia grandiflora against Plasmodium falciparum yielded two new (1 and 2) and six known (3 - 8) bioactive compounds. The structures of the new compounds were assigned by mass spectrometric and 1D and 2D NMR data. Known compounds were identified by comparison of (1) H NMR and MS data with literature data. The two known neolignans 3 and 4 showed moderate antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 2.8 ± 0.1 and 3.4 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Weak antiplasmodial activity was recorded for compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8, with IC50 values of 38 ± 2, 23 ± 2, 16.5 ± 0.2, 86 ± 1, 44 ± 4 and 114 ± 9 μM, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium, Proton, All rights reserved, Copyright, Nontotient, Magnolia grandiflora

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The phyllosphere presents a unique system of discrete and easily replicable surfaces colonized primarily by bacteria. However, the biogeography of bacteria in the phyllosphere is little understood, especially at small to intermediate scales. Bacterial communities on the leaves of 91 southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) trees 1-452 m apart in a small forest plot were analyzed and fragments of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequenced using the Illumina platform. Assemblages were dominated by members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria. Patterns in community composition were measured by both relative abundance (theta) and presence-absence (Jaccard) dissimilarity metrics. Distance-based Moran’s eigenvector map analyses of the distance-decay relationship found a significant, positive relationship between each dissimilarity metric and significant eigenfunctions derived from geographic distance between trees, indicating trees that were closer together had more similar bacterial phyllosphere communities. Indirect gradient analyses revealed that several environmental parameters (canopy cover, tree elevation, and the slope and aspect of the ground beneath trees) were significantly related to multivariate ordination scores based on relative bacterial sequence abundances; however, these relationships were not significant when looking at the incidence of bacterial taxa. This suggests that bacterial growth and abundance in the phyllosphere is shaped by different assembly mechanisms than bacterial presence or absence. More broadly, this study demonstrates that the distance-decay relationship applies to phyllosphere communities at local scales, and that environmental parameters as well as neutral forces may both influence spatial patterns in the phyllosphere.

Concepts: Archaea, Bacteria, Microbiology, RNA, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, 16S ribosomal RNA, Magnolia grandiflora

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Bioassay-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of Magnolia grandiflora seeds resulted in the isolation of a new dimeric neolignan, named bishonokiol A (1), as well as two known neolignans magnolol (2) and honokiol (3). The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of data obtained using NMR and MS. Bishonokiol A (1) showed potent anti-proliferative activities in four human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 5.1 to 7.5 µM. Additionally, bishonokiol A (1) induced apoptosis, as well as down-regulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and caspase-3 cleavage in HepG2 cell line.

Concepts: Cell, Cancer, Cell biology, Apoptosis, Cell culture, Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora, Honokiol