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Concept: Madhya Pradesh

172

In the present study, Interceptor®, long-lasting polyester net, 75 denier and bursting strength of minimum 250 kPa coated with alpha-cypermethrin @ 200 mg/m² was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the mosquito density, blood feeding inhibition and malaria incidence in a tribal dominated malaria endemic area in Chhattisgarh state, central India. Its durability, washing practices and usage pattern by the community was also assessed up to a period of three years.

Concepts: Present, Time, Malaria, Mosquito, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh

44

Not all eligible women use the available services under India’s Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), which provides cash incentives to encourage pregnant women to use institutional care for childbirth; limited evidence exists on demand-side factors associated with low program uptake. This study explores the views of women and ASHAs (community health workers) on the use of the JSY and institutional delivery care facilities. In-depth qualitative interviews, carried out in September-November 2013, were completed in the local language by trained interviewers with 112 participants consisting of JSY users/non-users and ASHAs in Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The interaction of impeding and enabling factors on the use of institutional care for delivery was explored. We found that ASHAs' support services (e.g., arrangement of transport, escort to and support at healthcare facilities) and awareness generation of the benefits of institutional healthcare emerged as major enabling factors. The JSY cash incentive played a lesser role as an enabling factor because of higher opportunity costs in the use of healthcare facilities versus home for childbirth. Trust in the skills of traditional birth-attendants and the notion of childbirth as a ‘natural event’ that requires no healthcare were the most prevalent impeding factors. The belief that a healthcare facility would be needed only in cases of birth complications was also highly prevalent. This often resulted in waiting until the last moments of childbirth to seek institutional healthcare, leading to delay/non-availability of transportation services and inability to reach a delivery facility in time. ASHAs opined that interpersonal communication for awareness generation has a greater influence on use of institutional healthcare, and complementary cash incentives further encourage use. Improving health workers' support services focused on marginalized populations along with better public healthcare facilities are likely to promote the uptake of institutional delivery care in resource-poor settings.

Concepts: Health care, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Motivation, Incentive, States and territories of India, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh

5

Poor sanitation is thought to be a major cause of enteric infections among young children. However, there are no previously published randomized trials to measure the health impacts of large-scale sanitation programs. India’s Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) is one such program that seeks to end the practice of open defecation by changing social norms and behaviors, and providing technical support and financial subsidies. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the TSC implemented with capacity building support from the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program in Madhya Pradesh on availability of individual household latrines (IHLs), defecation behaviors, and child health (diarrhea, highly credible gastrointestinal illness [HCGI], parasitic infections, anemia, growth).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, India, Technical support, States and territories of India, Madhya Pradesh, National parks of India

4

Subclinical (asymptomatic) cases of malaria could be a major barrier to the success of malaria elimination programs. This study has evaluated the impact of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) on the prevalence of subclinical malaria in the presence of pyrethroid resistance in the main malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies on malaria transmission among a cohort of children in villages of the Keshkal sub-district in Chhattisgarh state.

Concepts: Malaria, Anopheles, Mosquito, India, Asymptomatic, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Anopheles culicifacies

3

Participatory health initiatives ideally support progressive social change and stronger collective agency for marginalized groups. However, this empowering potential is often limited by inequalities within communities and between communities and outside actors (i.e. government officials, policymakers). We examined how the participatory initiative of Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) can enable and hinder the renegotiation of power in rural north India.

Concepts: India, Urdu, Madhya Pradesh, Hindi, Initiative, North India, Haryana, Progressive Era

3

Chhattisgarh in India is a malaria-endemic state with seven southern districts that contributes approximately 50-60% of the reported malaria cases in the state every year. The problem is further complicated due to asymptomatic malaria cases which are largely responsible for persistent transmission. This study was undertaken in one of the forested villages of the Keshkal subdistrict in Kondagaon district to ascertain the proportion of the population harbouring subclinical malarial infections.

Concepts: Malaria, India, Administrative divisions, Madhya Pradesh

3

To assess socioeconomic differences in access to high-quality health care services, we collected novel data on illnesses that required primary care from 23,275 households in 100 villages in Madhya Pradesh, India. We matched the primary care visits for those illnesses to characteristics of the health care providers that members of the households visited. People in the average village in our sample could access eleven providers, of whom 71 percent were in the private sector and 49 percent had no formal medical training. The private sector accounted for 89 percent of the primary care visits in our sample, with 77 percent of the visits made to providers with no formal training. Both access to and use of more knowledgeable providers increased with socioeconomic status, mostly as a result of differences across districts and villages. Strikingly, people in high- and low-socioeconomic-status households in the same village visited equally knowledgeable providers. It was the poor people who lived in poor communities who received especially low-quality care.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Health, Illness, Community, States and territories of India, Village, Madhya Pradesh

3

India’s Mother and Child Tracking System (MCTS)(1) is an information system for tracking maternal and child health beneficiaries in India’s public health system, and improving service delivery planning and outcomes. This ambitious project was launched in 2009 and currently covers all states in India, but no in-depth assessment of the system has been conducted. This study by the Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI) evaluated the performance of MCTS and identified implementation challenges in areas in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh (UP) in December 2012.

Concepts: Health economics, Public health, Health, States and territories of India, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana

2

Despite the known effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in providing protection against malaria, high level of ownership and use are very difficult to achieve and maintain. Nearly 40,000 LLINs were distributed in 2014 as an intervention tool against malaria transmission in 80 villages of Keshkal sub-district in Chhattisgarh, India. This study assessed LLIN coverage, access, utilization pattern, and key determinants for the net use 1 year after mass distribution.

Concepts: Malaria, Mass, Distribution, .NET Framework, Madhya Pradesh

2

The Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) is a Public-Private-Partnership between the state and private obstetricians in Gujarat, India, since 2007. The state pays for institutional births of the most vulnerable households (below-poverty-line and tribal) in private hospitals. An innovative remuneration package has been designed to disincentivise unnecessary cesareans. This study examines characteristics of private facilities which participated in the program.

Concepts: Universal health care, Childbirth, State, States and territories of India, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat