Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Luke Cage


Echolocating bats use the time elapsed from biosonar pulse emission to the arrival of echo (defined as echo-delay) to assess target-distance. Target-distance is represented in the brain by delay-tuned neurons that are classified as either “heteroharmonic” or “homoharmormic.” Heteroharmonic neurons respond more strongly to pulse-echo pairs in which the timing of the pulse is given by the fundamental biosonar harmonic while the timing of echoes is provided by one (or several) of the higher order harmonics. On the other hand, homoharmonic neurons are tuned to the echo delay between similar harmonics in the emitted pulse and echo. It is generally accepted that heteroharmonic computations are advantageous over homoharmonic computations; i.e., heteroharmonic neurons receive information from call and echo in different frequency-bands which helps to avoid jamming between pulse and echo signals. Heteroharmonic neurons have been found in two species of the family Mormoopidae (Pteronotus parnellii and Pteronotus quadridens) and in Rhinolophus rouxi. Recently, it was proposed that heteroharmonic target-range computations are a primitive feature of the genus Pteronotus that was preserved in the evolution of the genus. Here, we review recent findings on the evolution of echolocation in Mormoopidae, and try to link those findings to the evolution of the heteroharmonic computation strategy (HtHCS). We stress the hypothesis that the ability to perform heteroharmonic computations evolved separately from the ability of using long constant-frequency echolocation calls, high duty cycle echolocation, and Doppler Shift Compensation. Also, we present the idea that heteroharmonic computations might have been of advantage for categorizing prey size, hunting eared insects, and living in large conspecific colonies. We make five testable predictions that might help future investigations to clarify the evolution of the heteroharmonic echolocation in Mormoopidae and other families.

Concepts: Acoustics, Luke Cage, Evolution, Microbat, Insect, Sonar, Animal echolocation, Bat


Recombination effects can affect the detectors used for the dosimetry of radiotherapy fields. They are important when using ionization chambers, especially in liquid-filled ionization chambers, and should be corrected for. The introduction of flattening-filter-free accelerators increases the typical dose-per-pulse used in radiotherapy beams, which leads to more important recombination effects. Diamond detectors provide a good solution for the dosimetry and quality assurance of small radiotherapy fields, due to their low energy dependence and small volume. The group of Università di Roma Tor Vergata has developed a synthetic diamond detector, which is commercialized by PTW as microDiamond detector type 60019. In this work we present an experimental characterization of the collection efficiency of the microDiamond detector, focusing on high dose-per-pulse FFF beams. The collection efficiency decreases with dose-per-pulse, down to 0.978 at 2.2 mGy/pulse, following a Fowler-Attix-like curve. On the other hand, we have found no significant dependence of the collection efficiency on the pulse repetition frequency (or pulse period).

Concepts: Developed country, Affect, Diamond, Radiation therapy, Pulse, Luke Cage, Sensor, University of Rome Tor Vergata


This paper focuses on developing an anti-velocity jamming strategy that enhances the ability of a pulse-Doppler (PD) radar to detect moving targets in the presence of translational and/or micro motion velocity jamming generated by the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) repeat jammers. The strategy adopts random pulse initial phase (RPIP) pulses as its transmitted signal and thus gets DRFM jammers not adaptable to the randomness of initial phase of the transmitted pulses in the pulse repetition interval (PRI) domain. The difference between the true target echo and the false target jamming signal at each PRI is then utilized to recognize the true and false target signals. In particular, an entropy based multi-channel processing scheme is designed to extract the information of the received signal without the assumption that true and false targets must be both included within one coherent processing interval (CPI). Information such as the component of the received signal (target echo only, jamming only or both) or the operating manner of DRFM repeat jammer can be gained (if jamming exists). Meanwhile, we solve the false target recognition problem under sparse theory frame and our previous work named the short-time sparse recovery (STSR) algorithm is introduced to recover the motion parameters of the true and/or false targets in the time-frequency domain. It should be pointed out that both the translational false target jamming and micro motion target jamming can be recognized in our strategy. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with the correlated processing (CP) method used by most extant strategies. It is shown that the proposed strategy can successfully recognize the existence of true and/or false targets and keep its power in recovering corresponding motion parameters even when the jamming environment is strong.

Concepts: Debut albums, Phase transition, Luke Cage, Randomness, Radio, Weather radar, Pulse repetition frequency, Radar


The interrupted sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ) based on a digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) device is a new type of coherent jamming. This kind of jamming usually occurs as main-lobe jamming and has the advantages of low power requirements and easy parameter adjustment, posing a serious threat to the modern radar systems. In order to suppress the ISRJ, this paper proposes an adaptive transmitting scheme based on a phase-coded signal. The scheme firstly performs jamming perception to estimate the jamming parameters, then, on this basis, optimizes the waveform with genetic algorithm. With the optimized waveform, the jamming signal is orthogonal to the target echo, thus it can be easily suppressed with pulse compression. Simulation experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the scheme and the results suggest that the peak-to-side-lobe ratio (PSR) and integrated side-lobe level (ISL) of the pulse compression can be improved by about 16 dB and 15 dB, respectively, for the case where the jamming-to-signal ratio (JSR) is 13 dB.

Concepts: Jessica Jones, Ben Urich, Kat Farrell, Luke Cage, Suppression of dissent, Suppression, Radio, Radar


Optimal control approaches have proved useful in designing RF pulses for large tip-angle applications. A typical challenge for optimal control design is the inclusion of constraints resulting from physiological or technical limitations, that assure the realizability of the optimized pulses. In this work we show how to treat such inequality constraints, in particular, amplitude constraints on the B1 field, the slice-selective gradient and its slew rate, as well as constraints on the slice profile accuracy. For the latter a pointwise profile error and additional phase constraints are prescribed. Here, a penalization method is introduced that corresponds to a higher-order tracking instead of the common quadratic tracking. The order is driven to infinity in the course of the optimization. We jointly optimize for the RF and slice-selective gradient waveform. The amplitude constraints on these control variables are treated efficiently by semismooth Newton or quasi-Newton methods. The method is flexible, adapting to many optimization goals. As an application we reduce the power of refocusing pulses, which is important for spin echo based applications with a short echo spacing. Here, the optimization method is tested in numerical experiments for reducing the pulse power of simultaneous multislice refocusing pulses. The results are validated by phantom and in-vivo experiments.

Concepts: Pulse, Luke Cage, Nuclear magnetic resonance, English-language films, Mathematics, Optimization, Optimal control


The purpose of these clinical studies was to validate a Tissue Change Monitoring (TCM) algorithm in vivo. TCM is a quantitative tool for the real-time assessment of HIFU dose. TCM provides quantitative analysis of the backscatter pulse echo signals (pre and immediately post HIFU) for each individual ablative site, using ultrasonic tissue characterization as a surrogate for monitoring tissue temperature. Real-time analysis generates an energy difference parameter (ΔE in dB) that is proportional to tissue temperature.

Concepts: Luke Cage, Physical quantities, Light, Evaluation methods


Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a well-established and powerful imaging technique for acquiring high-spatial-resolution images of the Earth’s surface. With the development of beam steering techniques, sliding spotlight and staring spotlight modes have been employed to support high-spatial-resolution applications. In addition to this strengthened high-spatial-resolution and wide-swath capability, high-temporal-resolution (short repeat-observation interval) represents a key capability for numerous applications. However, conventional SAR systems are limited in that the same patch can only be illuminated for several seconds within a single pass. This paper considers a novel high-squint-angle system intended to acquire high-spatial-resolution spaceborne SAR images with repeat-observation intervals varying from tens of seconds to several minutes within a single pass. However, an exponentially increased range cell migration would arise and lead to a conflict between the receive window and ‘blind ranges’. An efficient data acquisition technique for high-temporal-resolution, high-spatial-resolution and high-squint-angle spaceborne SAR, in which the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is continuously varied according to the changing slant range, is presented in this paper. This technique allows echo data to remain in the receive window instead of conflicting with the transmitted pulse or nadir echo. Considering the precision of hardware, a compromise and practical strategy is also proposed. Furthermore, a detailed performance analysis of range ambiguities is provided with respect to parameters of TerraSAR-X. For strong point-like targets, the range ambiguity of this technique would be better than that of uniform PRF technique. For this innovative technique, a resampling strategy and modified imaging algorithm have been developed to handle the non-uniformly sampled echo data. Simulations are performed to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique and the associated imaging algorithm.

Concepts: Pulse repetition frequency, Ambiguity, Aperture synthesis, Luke Cage, Beamforming, Synthetic aperture radar, Radar


Efficient phase cycling schemes remain a challenge for NMR techniques if the pulse sequences involve a large number of rf-pulses. Especially complex is the Carr Purcell Meiboom Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence where the number of rf-pulses can range from hundreds to several thousands. Our recent implementation of Magnetic Resonance Pore Imaging (MRPI) is based on a CPMG rf-pulse sequence in order to refocus the effect of internal gradients inherent in porous media. While the spin dynamics for spin-½ systems in CPMG like experiments are well understood it is still not straight forward to separate the desired pathway from the spectrum of unwanted coherence pathways. In this contribution we apply Phase Incremented Echo Train Acquisition (PIETA) to MRPI. We show how PIETA offers a convenient way to implement a working phase cycling scheme and how it allows one to gain deeper insights into the amplitudes of undesired pathways.

Concepts: Implementation, Sequence, Googol, Paramagnetism, Electron, Luke Cage, Spin, Nuclear magnetic resonance


In order to enhance echo signals observed with selective pulses, equilibrium populations of the energy levels of S = 7/2 Gd(iii) spin labels are rearranged with frequency-swept passage pulses. To transfer population from as many energy levels as possible, the 2 μs long passage pulses range over more than 1 GHz. Application of this technique at Q-band frequencies to three different Gd(iii) complexes and spin dynamics simulations reveal large signal enhancements beyond 100% for Gd(iii) complexes with zero-field splitting parameters below 1 GHz. For complexes with larger splittings, experimental enhancements are on the order of 90%. Moreover, population transfer is combined with distance measurements on a model system with a pair of Gd(iii) ions. As a result, a signal enhancement of 85% is achieved without inducing changes in the obtained distance information. Besides this enhancement by population transfer, a dipolar modulation depth of 9% is demonstrated, which results in a total enhancement of 3.3 with respect to data obtained with monochromatic rectangular pulses. The limitations of the population transfer technique are discussed. In particular, the extraordinary broad pulse bandwidths caused heating effects and pulse distortions, which constrain the pulse length and thus the achievable signal enhancement.

Concepts: Luke Cage, English-language films, Frequency, Demography, Signal processing, Photon, Population, Distance


Eddy current distortion is an important issue that may influence the quantitative measurements of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The corrections of eddy current artifacts could be performed using bipolar diffusion gradients or unipolar gradients with affine registration. Whether the diffusion pulse sequence affects the quantification of DTI indices and the technique that produces more reliable DTI indices in terms of reproducibility both remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the reproducibility and mean values of DTI-derived indices between unipolar and bipolar diffusion pulse sequences based on actual human brain data. Five repeated datasets of unipolar and bipolar DTI were acquired from 10 healthy subjects at different echo times (TEs). The reproducibility and mean values of DTI indices were assessed by calculating the coefficient of variation and mean values of the 5 repeated measurements. The results revealed that the reproducibility and mean values of DTI indices were significantly affected by the pulse sequence. Unipolar DTI exhibited significantly higher reproducibility than bipolar DTI even at the same TE, and the mean values of DTI indices were significantly different between them. Therefore, we concluded that the reproducibility and mean values of DTI indices were significantly influenced by diffusion pulse sequences.

Concepts: Magnetic resonance imaging, Luke Cage, Vector space, Set, Major depressive disorder, Tensors, Imaging, Diffusion MRI