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Concept: Lower Manhattan

185

In a dark time, the eye begins to see. - Theodore Roethke The clouds were heavier, the air thicker. The wind picked up. The news that the subways would be shut down at 7 p.m. spread quickly by word of mouth. The streets in our Greenwich Village neighborhood were filled with people carrying food and water to their apartments. From my home, I could see the lights of LaGuardia and Kennedy airports and the imposing red-brick power station with its four smokestacks on 14th Street and the East River. We spent the weekend filling our bathtub with water and all . . .

Concepts: Light, New York City, Manhattan, Greenwich Village, 14th Street, Barbra Streisand, Lower Manhattan, The Bitter End

107

The World Trade Center attack of September 11, 2001 in New York City (9/11) exposed thousands of people to intense concentrations of hazardous materials that have resulted in reports of increased levels of asthma, heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases along with psychological illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have discriminated between health consequences of immediate (short-term or acute) intense exposures versus chronic residential or workplace exposures.

Concepts: Medicine, Asthma, Medical terms, Chronic, New York City, September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Lower Manhattan

10

BackgroundLittle is known about asthma control in adolescents who were exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of 9/11/2001 and diagnosed with asthma after 9/11. This report examines asthma and asthma control 10-11 years after 9/11 among exposed adolescents.MethodsThe WTC Health Registry adolescent Wave 3 survey (2011-2012) collected data on asthma diagnosed by a physician after 9/11/2001, extent of asthma control based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, probable mental health conditions, and behavior problems. Parents reported healthcare needs and 9/11-exposures. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between asthma and level of asthma control and 9/11-exposure, mental health and behavioral problems, and unmet healthcare needs.ResultsPoorly/very poorly controlled asthma was significantly associated with a household income of ≤$75,000 (AOR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.1-8.8), having unmet healthcare needs (AOR: 6.2; 95% CI: 1.4-27.1), and screening positive for at least one mental health condition (AOR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.4-17.7), but not with behavioral problems. The impact of having at least one mental health condition on the level of asthma control was substantially greater in females than in males.ConclusionsComprehensive care of post-9/11 asthma in adolescents should include management of mental health-related comorbidities.

Concepts: September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Lower Manhattan, United 93, Al-Qaeda, 7 World Trade Center, World Trade Center site, National September 11 Memorial & Museum

9

We previously reported a modest excess of cancer in World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters versus the general population. This study aimed to separate the potential carcinogenic effects of firefighting and WTC exposure by comparing to a cohort of non-WTC-exposed firefighters.

Concepts: New York City, September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Empire State Building, Manhattan, Lower Manhattan, Port Authority Trans-Hudson, Wall Street

9

The World Trade Center (WTC) collapse generated caustic airborne particulates that caused chronic rhinosinusitis in exposed fire department of New York (FDNY) firefighters. Surgery was performed when symptoms remained uncontrolled despite medical management.

Concepts: New York City, September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Empire State Building, Lower Manhattan, Port Authority Trans-Hudson, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, American Airlines Flight 11

8

To determine whether lung function trajectories after 9/11/2001 (9/11) differed by sex or race/ethnicity in World Trade Center-exposed Fire Department of the City of New York emergency medical service (EMS) workers.

Concepts: New York City, Emergency medical services, London, Toronto, September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Lower Manhattan, Staten Island

5

To estimate associations between exposure to the events of September 11, 2001, (9/11) and low birth weight (LBW), preterm delivery (PD), and small size for gestational age (SGA).

Concepts: Obstetrics, New York City, 2001, September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Empire State Building, Lower Manhattan, Port Authority Trans-Hudson

4

Rescue/recovery work at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site caused a proximate decline in lung function in Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) firefighters. A subset of this cohort experienced an accelerated rate of lung function decline over 15 years of post-9/11 follow-up.

Concepts: Sociology, New York City, September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Empire State Building, Lower Manhattan, Port Authority Trans-Hudson, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

4

Little is known about the direction of causality among asthma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and onset of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) after exposure to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster.

Concepts: Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Cognitive behavioral therapy, 2001, September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Lower Manhattan, United 93, 7 World Trade Center

4

High rates of upper and lower airways disease have occurred in Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) workers exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site. Most experienced acute declines in pulmonary function, and some continued to experience decline over 14 years of follow-up. Similarly, some with rhinosinusitis had symptoms requiring sinus surgery.

Concepts: New York City, September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Empire State Building, Lower Manhattan, Port Authority Trans-Hudson, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, American Airlines Flight 11