Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Longitudinal mode


A high-slope-efficiency single-frequency (SF) ytterbium-doped fiber laser, based on a Sagnac loop mirror filter (LMF), was demonstrated. It combined a simple linear cavity with a Sagnac LMF that acted as a narrow-bandwidth filter to select the longitudinal modes. And we introduced a polarization controller to restrain the spatial hole burning effect in the linear cavity. The system could operate at a stable SF oscillating at 1064 nm with the obtained maximum output power of 32 mW. The slope efficiency was found to be primarily dependent on the reflectivity of the fiber Bragg grating. The slope efficiency of multi-longitudinal modes was higher than 45%, and the highest slope efficiency of the single longitudinal mode we achieved was 33.8%. The power stability and spectrum stability were <2% and <0.1%, respectively, and the signal-to-noise ratio measured was around 60 dB.

Concepts: Diffraction, Optical fiber, Laser, Normal mode, Bragg's law, Optical cavity, Analog-to-digital converter, Longitudinal mode


A laser-diode-pumped broadband and continuously frequency-tuned all-solid-state Nd:YVO4laser at 1064 nm with an output power of 200 mW is demonstrated. A RbTiOPO4(RTP) etalon and a piezoelectric-transducer (PZT) are utilized for coarse and fine frequency tuning, respectively. Dependence of the frequency excursion on the applied voltage to the RTP etalon and the displacement of the PZT is theoretically and experimentally investigated. A continuous frequency tuning of 14 GHz is conducted by synchronous adjustment of the RTP etalon and the PZT. The tuning covers more than 6 times the longitudinal mode spacing of a laser resonator without any mode hops.

Concepts: Laser, Pitch, Resonance, Normal mode, Standing wave, Optical cavity, Transverse mode, Longitudinal mode


The evolution of iron local vibrational mode (Fe LVM) and phase transitions in n-type iron-doped indium phosphide (InP:Fe) were investigated at ambient temperature. In-situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that InP:Fe starts to transform from zinc-blende (ZB) to rock-salt (RS) structure around 8.2(2) GPa and completes around 16.0(2) GPa. The Raman shift of both transverse and longitudinal optical modes increases monotonically with increasing pressure, while their intensities become indiscernible at 11.6(2) GPa, suggesting that the pressure-induced phase transition is accompanied by significant metallization. In contrast, originally absent at ambient pressure, the Raman shift of Fe LVM appears at ∼420 cm-1 near 1.2 GPa and exhibits a dome shape behavior with increasing pressure, reaching a maximum value of ∼440 cm-1 around 5 GPa, with an apparent kink occurring around the ZB-RS transition pressure of ∼8.5(2) GPa. The Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) confirmed the tetrahedral site occupation of Fe3+ with a crystal field splitting parameter Δ t  = 38 kJ·mole-1. Our calculations indicate that the energy parameters governing the phase transition are Δt = 0.49 and Δ o  = 1.10 kJ·mole-1, respectively, both are much smaller than Δ t  = 38 kJ·mole-1 at ambient.

Concepts: Iron, Fundamental physics concepts, Phase transition, Differential scanning calorimetry, Raman scattering, Austenite, Longitudinal mode


Oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with anti-waveguiding AlAs-rich core presently attract a lot of attention. Anti-waveguiding cavity enables the maximum possible optical confinement of the VCSEL mode (“λ/2 design”), increases its oscillator strength and reduces dramatically the optical power accumulated in the VCSEL mesa regions outside the aperture. VCSEL designs are suggested that favor single transverse mode operation. Modeling including current-induced and absorption-induced overheating shows that the preference for the transverse fundamental mode persists up to 10 mA current at 5 µm aperture diameter. Error-free data transmission is realized up to 160 Gb/s in digital-multitone (DMT) format using single-mode anti-waveguiding VCSELs. The approach to single-mode anti-waveguiding VCSELs is extended over a broad spectral range realizing error-free high-speed data transmission at both 850 nm and 910 nm.

Concepts: Optics, Laser, Gaussian beam, Normal mode, Transverse mode, Laser beam profiler, Longitudinal mode, Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser


A 520-nm InGaN diode laser can emit a milliwatt-level, single-frequency laser beam when the applied current slightly exceeds the lasing threshold. The laser frequency was less sensitive to diode temperature and could be finely tuned by adjusting the applied current. Laser frequency was stabilized onto a hyperfine component in an iodine transition through the saturated absorption spectroscopy. The uncertainty of frequency stabilization was approximately 8×10-9 at a 10-s integration time. This compact laser system can replace the conventional green diode-pumped solid-state laser and applied as a frequency reference. A single longitudinal mode operational region with diode temperature, current, and output power was investigated.

Concepts: Laser, Laser pointer, Infrared, Laser pumping, Solid-state laser, Optical cavity, Longitudinal mode, Lasing threshold


We design and demonstrate a compact, narrow-linewidth integrated laser based on low-loss silicon nitride waveguides coupled to a III-V gain chip. By using a highly confined optical mode, we simultaneously achieve compact bends and ultra-low loss. We leverage the narrowband backreflection of a high-Q microring resonator to act as a cavity output mirror, a single-mode filter, and a propagation delay all in one. This configuration allows the ring to provide feedback and obtain a laser linewidth of 13 kHz with 1.7 mW output power around 1550 nm. This demonstration realizes a compact sub-millimeter silicon nitride laser cavity with a narrow linewidth.

Concepts: Optics, Laser, Resonator, Gaussian beam, Resonance, Transverse mode, Laser beam profiler, Longitudinal mode


In this paper, a bandwidth-enhanced and wide-angle-of-incidence metamaterial absorber is proposed using a hybrid unit cell. Owing to symmetric unit cells, high absorptivity is maintained for all polarization angles. A circular-sector unit cell enables high absorptivity under the oblique incidence of both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic ™ modes. To enhance the bandwidth, we introduced a hybrid unit cell comprising four circular sectors. Two sectors resonate at 10.38 GHz, and two resonate at 10.55 GHz. Since the two absorption frequencies are near each other, the bandwidth increases. The proposed idea is demonstrated with both full-wave simulations and measurements. The simulated absorptivity exceeds 91% around 10.45 GHz at an angle of incidence up to 70° in both TM and TE polarizations. The measured absorptivity at 10.45 GHz is close to 96.5% for all polarization angles under normal incidence. As the angle of incidence changes from 0° to 70°, the measured absorptivity at 10.45 GHz remains above 90% in the TE mode and higher than 94% in the TM mode. Under an oblique incidence, the measured 90% absorption bandwidth is 1.95% from 10.1-10.2 GHz and 10.4-10.5 GHz up to 70° at the TE mode, and 3.39% from 10.15-10.5 GHz up to 70° at the TM mode.

Concepts: Optics, Electromagnetic radiation, Sound, Angle, Normal mode, Wave mechanics, Transverse mode, Longitudinal mode


We investigate two important aspects of PT symmetric photonic molecule lasers, namely the robustness of their single longitudinal mode operation against instabilities triggered by spectral hole burning effects, and the possibility of more versatile mode selectivity. Our results, supported by numerically integrating the nonlinear rate equations and performing linear stability analysis, reveals the following: (1) In principle a second threshold exists after which single mode operation becomes unstable, signaling multimode oscillatory dynamics, (2) For a wide range of design parameters, single mode operation of PT lasers having relatively large free spectral range (FSR) can be robust even at higher gain values, (3) PT symmetric photonic molecule lasers are more robust than their counterpart structures made of single microresonators; and (4) Extending the concept of single longitudinal mode operation based on PT symmetry in millimeter long edge emitting lasers having smaller FSR can be challenging due to instabilities induced by nonlinear modal interactions. Finally we also present a possible strategy based on loss engineering to achieve more control over the mode selectivity by suppressing the mode that has the highest gain (i.e. lies under the peak of the gain spectrum curve) and switch the lasing action to another mode.

Concepts: Laser, Control theory, Normal mode, Stability theory, Wave mechanics, Optical cavity, Transverse mode, Longitudinal mode


We demonstrate an electrically pumped, single-mode, large area, edge-emitting InGaAsP/InP two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) Bragg laser with triangular lattice. The laser operates in the single transverse and longitudinal modes with a single lobe, near-diffraction-limited far field. We compare the performance of the triangular-lattice PC Bragg laser with the rectangular-lattice PC Bragg laser fabricated from the same wafer and find that their performances are comparable. Then, we combine two single triangular-lattice PC Bragg lasers that tilt to opposite directions by taking advantage of the symmetry of the single emitter cavity mode. The measurement results show that the combined PC Bragg lasers provide the near-diffraction-limited output beam, and the single wavelength operation is also maintained in the coherently combined broad-area PC Bragg lasers.

Concepts: Quantum mechanics, Optics, Light, Laser, Photonics, Transverse mode, Laser beam profiler, Longitudinal mode


In fiber based Fabry-Pérot Cavities (FFPCs), limited spatial mode matching between the cavity mode and input/output modes has been the main hindrance for many applications. We have demonstrated a versatile mode matching method for FFPCs. Our novel design employs an assembly of a graded-index and large core multimode fiber directly spliced to a single mode fiber. This all-fiber assembly transforms the propagating mode of the single mode fiber to match with the mode of a FFPC. As a result, we have measured a mode matching of 90% for a cavity length of ~400 μm. This is a significant improvement compared to conventional FFPCs coupled with just a single mode fiber, especially at long cavity lengths. Adjusting the parameters of the assembly, the fundamental cavity mode can be matched with the mode of almost any single mode fiber, making this approach highly versatile and integrable.

Concepts: Optical fiber, C, Match, Fiber-optic communication, Multi-mode optical fiber, Transverse mode, Longitudinal mode, Single-mode optical fiber