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Concept: Logistic function


BACKGROUND: Reducing sedentary time and increasing lifestyle activities, including light-intensity activity, may be an option to help prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether objectively measured light-intensity lifestyle activity and sedentary time is associated with MetS, independent of moderate–vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). METHODS: The participants in this cross-sectional study were 483 middle-aged Japanese adults, aged 30–64 years. The participants were divided into those with or without MetS according to the Japanese criteria for MetS. A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure light-intensity lifestyle activity [1.6–2.9 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and sedentary time (<=1.5 METs). Logistic regression was used to predict MetS from the levels of light-intensity lifestyle activity and sedentary time with age, sex, smoking, calorie intake, accelerometer wear time, and MVPA as covariates. RESULTS: The odds ratios (OR) for MetS in the highest and middle tertiles of light-intensity lifestyle activity were 0.44 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24 to 0.81] and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.89) relative to the lowest tertile, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, calorie intake, accelerometer wear time and MVPA (Ptrend = 0.012). Sedentary time was also associated with the risk of MetS (Ptrend = 0.018). Among participants in the highest tertile of sedentary time, the risk of MetS was 2.27-times greater than that in the lowest tertile (95% CI: 1.25 to 4.11). The risk of MetS was not significantly increased in subjects in the middle tertile of sedentary time. CONCLUSIONS: We found that light-intensity lifestyle activity and sedentary time were significantly associated with the risk of MetS, independent of MVPA. The results of our study suggest that public health messages and guidelines should be refined to include increases in light-intensity lifestyle activity and/or decreases in sedentary time, alongside promoting MVPA, to prevent MetS.

Concepts: Logit, Epidemiology, Energy, Cross-sectional study, Obesity, Measurement, Logistic function, Metabolic equivalent


The purposes of this study were to evaluate the association between total testosterone (TT) deficiency and weakness on multimorbidity in men. Analyses were performed to examine the prevalence of multimobidity among young, middle-aged, and older men, with and without testosterone deficiency. Multivariate logistic models were also used to determine the association between age-specific TT tertiles and multimorbidity, adjusting for key sociodemographic variables, as well as a secondary analysis adjusted for grip strength. Multimorbidity was more prevalent among men with testosterone deficiency, compared to normal TT in the entire group (36.6% vs 55.2%; p < 0.001); however, differences were only seen within young (testosterone deficiency: 36.4%; normal TT: 13.5%; p < 0.001) and older men (testosterone deficiency: 75.0%; normal TT: 61.5%; p < 0.001). Robust associations were found between the age-specific low-TT (OR: 2.87; 95%CI: 2.14-3.83) and moderate-TT (OR: 1.67; 95%CI: 1.27-2.20) tertiles (reference high-TT) and multimorbidity. Secondary analysis demonstrated that both low TT (OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.29-2.55) and moderate-TT (OR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) were associated with multimorbidity, even after adjusting for obesity (OR: 1.75; 95%CI: 1.07-2.87) and NGS (OR: 1.21 per 0.05 unit lower NGS). Low TT and weakness in men were independently associated with multimorbidity at all ages; however, multimorbidity was more prevalent among young and older men with testosterone deficiency.

Concepts: Incidence, Testosterone, The Association, Prevalence, Analysis, Logistic function, Grip strength


A large body of evidence supports the effectiveness of larger health warnings on cigarette packages. However, there is limited research examining attitudes toward such warning labels, which has potential implications for implementation of larger warning labels. The purpose of the current study was to examine attitudes toward larger warning sizes on cigarette packages and examine variables associated with more favorable attitudes. In a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults (N = 5,014), participants were randomized to different warning size conditions, assessing attitude toward “a health warning that covered (25, 50, 75) % of a cigarette pack.” SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Across experimental groups, nearly three-quarters (72%) of adults had attitudes supportive of larger warning labels on cigarette packs. Among the full sample and smokers only (N = 1,511), most adults had favorable attitudes toward labels that covered 25% (78.2% and 75.2%, respectively), 50% (70% and 58.4%, respectively), and 75% (67.9% and 61%, respectively) of a cigarette pack. Young adults, females, racial/ethnic minorities, and non-smokers were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Among smokers only, females and those with higher quit intentions held more favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Widespread support exists for larger warning labels on cigarette packages among U.S. adults, including among smokers. Our findings support the implementation of larger health warnings on cigarette packs in the U.S. as required by the 2009 Tobacco Control Act.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Logistic function, Support, The Pack, Tobacco packaging warning messages, Pack, Cigarette pack


United States and Canadian governments have responded to legal requirements to reduce human-induced whale mortality via vessel strikes and entanglement in fishing gear by implementing a suite of regulatory actions. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of mortality of large whales in the Northwest Atlantic (23.5°N to 48.0°N), 1970 through 2009, in the context of management changes. We used a multinomial logistic model fitted by maximum likelihood to detect trends in cause-specific mortalities with time. We compared the number of human-caused mortalities with U.S. federally established levels of potential biological removal (i.e., species-specific sustainable human-caused mortality). From 1970 through 2009, 1762 mortalities (all known) and serious injuries (likely fatal) involved 8 species of large whales. We determined cause of death for 43% of all mortalities; of those, 67% (502) resulted from human interactions. Entanglement in fishing gear was the primary cause of death across all species (n = 323), followed by natural causes (n = 248) and vessel strikes (n = 171). Established sustainable levels of mortality were consistently exceeded in 2 species by up to 650%. Probabilities of entanglement and vessel-strike mortality increased significantly from 1990 through 2009. There was no significant change in the local intensity of all or vessel-strike mortalities before and after 2003, the year after which numerous mitigation efforts were enacted. So far, regulatory efforts have not reduced the lethal effects of human activities to large whales on a population-range basis, although we do not exclude the possibility of success of targeted measures for specific local habitats that were not within the resolution of our analyses. It is unclear how shortfalls in management design or compliance relate to our findings. Analyses such as the one we conducted are crucial in critically evaluating wildlife-management decisions. The results of these analyses can provide managers with direction for modifying regulated measures and can be applied globally to mortality-driven conservation issues. Evaluación del Manejo para Mitigar Efectos Antropogénicos sobre Ballenas Mayores.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Logistic map, Regulation, Sustainability, Logistic function, Likelihood function, Whale, Anthropogenic


Baseline correction methods based on penalized least squares are successfully applied to various spectral analyses. The methods change the weights iteratively by estimating a baseline. If a signal is below a previously fitted baseline, large weight is given. On the other hand, no weight or small weight is given when a signal is above a fitted baseline as it could be assumed to be a part of the peak. As noise is distributed above the baseline as well as below the baseline, however, it is desirable to give the same or similar weights in either case. For the purpose, we propose a new weighting scheme based on the generalized logistic function. The proposed method estimates the noise level iteratively and adjusts the weights correspondingly. According to the experimental results with simulated spectra and measured Raman spectra, the proposed method outperforms the existing methods for baseline correction and peak height estimation.

Concepts: Scientific method, Signal processing, Raman spectroscopy, Estimation, Proposal, Logistic function, Weight, Hubbert curve


In recent years, there has been an increase in poisoning-related emergency department (ED) visits. This study examines trends in ED resource utilization for poisoning-related visits over time. A retrospective review of data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2003-2011, was conducted. All ED visits with a reason for visit or ICD-9 code related to poisoning were included. We examined the number of ED visits and resources used including diagnostic studies and procedures performed, medications provided, admission rates, and length of stay. The proportion of visits involving resource use was tabulated and trends analyzed using survey-weighted logistic regression, grouping into 2-year periods to ensure adequate sample size. Of an estimated 843 million ED visits between 2003 and 2011, 8 million (0.9 %) were related to poisoning. Visits increased from 1.8 million (0.8 %) visits in 2003-2004 to 2.9 million (1.1 %) visits in 2010-2011, p = 0.001. Use of laboratory studies, EKGs, plain radiographs, and procedures remained stable across the study period. CT use was more than doubled, increasing from 5.2 to 13.7 % of visits, p = 0.001. ED length of stay increased by 35.5 % from 254 to 344 min, p = 0.001. Admission rates increased by 45.3 %, from 15.0 to 21.8 %, p = 0.046. Over the entire study period, 52.0 % of poisoned patients arrived via ambulance, and 3.0 % of patients had been discharged from the hospital within the previous 7 days. Poisoning-related ED visits increased over the 8-year study period; poisonings are resource-intensive visits and require increasingly longer lengths of ED stay or hospital admission.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Sample size, Hospital, Retrospective, Period, Logistic function, Length, Ed, Edd n Eddy


BackgroundAnti-stigma programmes should aim to increase disclosure to those who can support someone with a mental health problem and appropriate professional help-seeking.AimsWe investigated associations among public awareness of England’s Time to Change anti-stigma campaign and: (a) comfort envisaged in disclosing a mental health problem to family and friends; (b) comfort in disclosing to an employer; and © intended professional help-seeking from a general practitioner, i.e. a physician working in primary care.MethodUsing data from a survey of a nationally representative sample of adults, we created separate logistic regression models to test for campaign awareness and other variables as predictors of comfort in disclosure and intended help-seeking.ResultsWe found positive relationships between campaign awareness and comfort in disclosing to family and friends (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% CI 1.14-1.43) and to a current or prospective employer (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.35); and likelihood of help-seeking (OR = 1.18 95% CI 1.03-1.36).ConclusionsAwareness of an anti-stigma campaign was associated with greater comfort in disclosing a mental health problem and intended help-seeking.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Logit, Logistic regression, Program, Logistic function, Odds


The aim of this review was to quantify the global variation in childhood myopia prevalence over time taking account of demographic and study design factors. A systematic review identified population-based surveys with estimates of childhood myopia prevalence published by February 2015. Multilevel binomial logistic regression of log odds of myopia was used to examine the association with age, gender, urban versus rural setting and survey year, among populations of different ethnic origins, adjusting for study design factors. 143 published articles (42 countries, 374 349 subjects aged 1-18 years, 74 847 myopia cases) were included. Increase in myopia prevalence with age varied by ethnicity. East Asians showed the highest prevalence, reaching 69% (95% credible intervals (CrI) 61% to 77%) at 15 years of age (86% among Singaporean-Chinese). Blacks in Africa had the lowest prevalence; 5.5% at 15 years (95% CrI 3% to 9%). Time trends in myopia prevalence over the last decade were small in whites, increased by 23% in East Asians, with a weaker increase among South Asians. Children from urban environments have 2.6 times the odds of myopia compared with those from rural environments. In whites and East Asians sex differences emerge at about 9 years of age; by late adolescence girls are twice as likely as boys to be myopic. Marked ethnic differences in age-specific prevalence of myopia exist. Rapid increases in myopia prevalence over time, particularly in East Asians, combined with a universally higher risk of myopia in urban settings, suggest that environmental factors play an important role in myopia development, which may offer scope for prevention.

Concepts: Logit, Logistic regression, Population, Race, Ethnic group, Myopia, Logistic function, British Asian


The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range.

Concepts: Psychology, Philosophy of mind, Mind, Scale, Logistic function, Introduction, Big Five personality traits, Theory of mind


Automatic car counting is an important component in the automated traffic system. Car counting is very important to understand the traffic load and optimize the traffic signals. In this paper, we implemented the Gaussian Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework to count cars. OverFeat Framework is a combination of Convolution Neural Network (CNN) and one machine learning classifier (like Support Vector Machines (SVM) or Logistic Regression). With this study, we showed another possible application area for the OverFeat Framework. The advantages and shortcomings of the Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework were analyzed using six individual traffic videos with different perspectives, such as camera angles, weather conditions and time of the day. In addition, we compared the two algorithms above with manual counting and a commercial software called Placemeter. The OverFeat Framework showed significant potential in the field of car counting with the average accuracy of 96.55% in our experiment.

Concepts: Addition, Artificial intelligence, Artificial neural network, Statistical classification, Support vector machine, Logistic function, Elementary arithmetic, Subtraction