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Concept: Local anesthetics


Ear tattooing is a routine procedure performed on laboratory, commercial and companion rabbits for the purpose of identification. Although this procedure is potentially painful, it is usually performed without the provision of analgesia, so compromising animal welfare. Furthermore, current means to assess pain in rabbits are poor and more reliable methods are required. The objectives of this study were to assess the physiological and behavioural effects of ear tattooing on rabbits, evaluate the analgesic efficacy of topical local anaesthetic cream application prior to this procedure, and to develop a scale to assess pain in rabbits based on changes in facial expression.

Concepts: Local anesthetics, Ketamine, Suffering, Prilocaine, Morphine, Pain, Opioid, Lidocaine


Venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are the most common painful procedures performed on children. The most widely used topical anesthetic is eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA). EMLA use is associated with a transient cutaneous vasoconstriction which can make it difficult to identify veins. We assessed with a prospective, multicenter, observational study whether EMLA interferes with venipuncture and intravenous cannulation. The primary study outcome was a success at first attempt in the course of venipuncture or venous cannulation. The study enrolled 388 children; 255 of them received EMLA and 133 did not. Eighty-six percent of procedures were successful at the first attempt in the EMLA group and 76.7 % in the no EMLA group. Conclusion: In this study, EMLA use did not interfere with the success of venipuncture or venous cannulation in children.

Concepts: Topical anesthetic, Lidocaine/prilocaine, Prilocaine, Anesthesia, Local anesthetic, Local anesthetics, Lidocaine


Iontophoresis is a strategy to increase the penetration of drugs through biological membranes; however, its use has been underexplored in mucosa. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of iontophoresis in the mucosal penetration of prilocaine hydrochloride (PCL) and lidocaine hydrochloride (LCL), which are largely used in dentistry as local anesthetics, when combined in the same formulation. Semisolid hydrogels containing these drugs either alone or in combination were developed at two different pHs (7.0 and 5.8) and presented adequate mechanical and mucoadhesive properties for buccal administration. The distribution coefficients between the mucosa and the formulations (Dm/f) and the in vitro mucosa permeation and retention rates were evaluated for both PCL and LCL. At pH 7.0, the combination of the drugs decreased the Dm/f of PCL by approximately 3-fold but did not change the Dm/f of LCL; iontophoresis increased the permeation rate of PCL by 12-fold and did not significantly change LCL flux compared with the passive permeation rate of the combined drugs. Combining the drugs also resulted in an increase in both PCL (86-fold) and LCL (12-fold) accumulation in the mucosa after iontophoresis at pH 7.0 compared with iontophoresis of the isolated drugs. Therefore, applying iontophoresis to a semisolid formulation of this drug combination at pH 7.0 can serve as a needle-free strategy to speed the onset and prolong the duration of buccal anesthesia.

Concepts: Anesthetic, Cocaine, Lidocaine, Prilocaine, Anesthesia, Local anesthetics, Lidocaine/prilocaine, Local anesthetic


To compare the intraoperative and postoperative clinical properties of 1% ropivacaine, 0.75% bupivacaine, 2% lidocaine and a mixture of 0.75% bupivacaine and 2% lidocaine (bupi+lido) administered for peribulbar anaesthesia during vitrectomy.

Concepts: Comparisons, Mixture, Comparison, Epidural, Local anesthesia, Local anesthetics, Local anesthetic, Anesthesia


Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has gained favor as a rescue treatment for cardiovascular collapse due to intravenous local anesthetic overdose, however, goals of ILE therapy are still being defined. We describe a case of a girl given 66 mL/kg of 20% lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of presumed mepivacaine toxicity.

Concepts: Local anesthetic toxicity, Mepivacaine, Lipid rescue, Local anesthesia, Toxicology, Local anesthetics, Anesthesia, Local anesthetic


The abdominal incision for specimen extraction could trigger postoperative pain after laparoscopic colorectal resections (LCR). Continuous Wound Infusion (CWI) of ropivacaine may be a valuable option for postoperative analgesia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential benefits of ropivacaine CWI on pain relief, metabolic stress reaction, prevention of wound hyperalgesia and residual incisional pain after LCR. A subgroup with intravenous lidocaine infusion (IVL) was added to discriminate between the peripheral and systemic effects of local anaesthetic infusions.

Concepts: Infusion, Medical treatments, Local anesthetics, Force, Lidocaine, Pain, Local anesthetic, Anesthesia


EMLA cream was developed to reduce pain during pulsed-dye laser (PDL) treatment; however, no standard assessment for the therapeutic outcomes of PDL with EMLA creams thus far available. This comparative, prospective clinical trial evaluates laser efficacy and pain reduction during PDL treatment with EMLA cream for local topical anesthesia. Nineteen patients with untreated port-wine stain (PWS) were treated using PDL and examined in this study. Treatment specifications included Vbeam® PDL (Candela Corp.), 595-nm wavelength, 9 J/cm2 radiant exposure, 0.45 ms pulse duration, 10 mm spot size, and cryogen spray cooling (40 ms cooling plus a 20 ms delay). A topical anesthetic (EMLA cream: 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine) and a placebo were applied to two respective testing areas on all patients prior to treatment. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used for pain assessment. Clinical therapeutic outcomes were evaluated by visual evaluation and with the use of a chromameter 2 months after 3PDL treatments. The average VAS scores were 3.15 ± 0.95 and 8 ± 0.57 for the EMLA cream site and the placebo site, respectively, at a significance level p < 0.001. The EMLA cream site and the placebo site had clearance or fading rates of 45.08 and 44.12%, respectively (p < 0.05). No serious side effects were reported. Patients reported a consistent decrease in pain during PDL treatment when the topical anesthetic EMLA cream was administered. Treatment of PWS by PDL with EMLA cream does not lead to a decrease in efficacy or an increase in side effects; instead, it significantly reduces pain during treatment. EMLA cream is a safe and effective local topical anesthetic for PWS treatment by PDL.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Local anesthesia, Anesthesia, Lidocaine/prilocaine, Local anesthetics, Topical, Lidocaine, Local anesthetic


To compare the efficacy and duration of effect of three local anesthetics on corneal sensitivity when administered subconjunctivally in horses.

Concepts: Effect, Anesthesia, Effectiveness, Local anesthetics, Local anesthetic


The relatively short duration of effect of local anesthetics has been addressed by encapsulation in drug delivery systems. Codelivery with a single compound that produces an adjuvant effect on nerve block but without intrinsic local anesthetic properties can further prolong the nerve block effect. Here, we investigated whether codelivery of more than 1 encapsulated adjuvant compound can further enhance nerve blockade.

Concepts: Local anesthetics, Ketamine, Nerve block, Topical anesthetic, Anesthetic, Local anesthesia, Anesthesia, Local anesthetic


Cavitation plays a substantial role in the clinical effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT). It is also generally accepted as a major mechanism in sonophoresis. To identify the enhancing effect of extracorporeal shock wave-mediated transdermal drug delivery, 24 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (i) topical application of a eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA); (ii) 1-MHz ultrasound; (iii) ESWT pre-treatment combined with EMLA application; (iv) ESWT concurrent with EMLA application on rat tails. The degree of anesthesia was assessed using the amplitude and latency of sensory nerve action potentials within 5 min after a 60-min EMLA application. The results indicated that ESWT pre-treatment and concurrent ESWT accelerated the anesthetic effects of the EMLA cream on the tail nerve (p < 0.05). This finding might indicate that shock wave-mediated transdermal drug delivery is possible during the ESWT period.

Concepts: Local anesthesia, Anesthetic, Action potential, Local anesthetics, Prilocaine, Anesthesia, Local anesthetic, Lidocaine