SciCombinator

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Concept: Lipoproteins

167

The present study was designed to verify the influence of acute fat loading on high density lipoprotein (HDL) composition, and the involvement of liver and different segments of small intestine in the changes observed.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Liver, Lipoprotein, High-density lipoprotein, Lipoproteins, Small intestine, Lipid, Olive oil

167

Aim: To determine the effect of a 12-month intent-to-treat tesosterone replacement therapy (TRT) trial on QTa interval variability (QTaVI) in hypogonadal (HG) men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: A prospective, controlled, 12-month TRT trial was completed in twenty-two healthy, chronic, non-ambulatory men with SCI. Based on serum T concentration, subjects were designated as HG (≤11.3 nmol/l) or eugonadal (EG, ≥11.4 nmol/l). Digital 3-lead electrocardiograms were performed. Heart rate (RR), heart rate variability [(HRV), including total power (TP(RR)), low frequency (LF(RR)) and high freguency (HF(RR))], QTa, QTe, and RT intervals, QTC (Bazett), QTVN, and QTaVI were calculated and evaluated at baseline and 12 months. Lipoprotein profiles (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density and high-density lipoproteins) were obtained at the respective time points. Results: Based on serum T concentration, 13 subjects were designated as HG and 11 EG. During the trial, there were no group differences for RR, QTa, QTe or RT intervals, QTC, TP(RR), HF(RR), or lipoproteins. The HG was older (p < 0.05) and LF(RR) was lower (p < 0.05) at baseline. At baseline, QTaVI was significantly greater in HG compared to EG [-0.17 (0.92) vs. -1.07 (0.90); p < 0.05]. After TRT, this group difference was no longer present [-0.44 (0.87) vs. -0.65 (0.85)] and the change in HG was significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Hypogonadism in men with SCI was associated with elevated QTaVI at baseline. After 12 months of physiological TRT, the QTaVI improved in association with raising T into the normal range. These findings occurred independently from the prolongation of the QT interval.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Cardiology, Lipoprotein, Lipoproteins, Cardiac electrophysiology, Testosterone, QT interval, Hypogonadism

167

The LDL receptor (LDLR) supports efficient uptake of both LDL and VLDL remnants by binding lipoprotein at the cell surface, internalizing lipoprotein through coated pits and releasing lipoprotein in endocytic compartments before returning to the surface for further rounds of uptake. While many aspects of lipoprotein binding and receptor entry are well understood, it is less clear where, when and how the LDLR releases lipoprotein. To address these questions, the current study employed quantitative fluorescence imaging to visualize the uptake and endosomal processing of LDL and the VLDL remnant, β-VLDL. We find that lipoprotein release is rapid with most release occurring prior to entry of lipoprotein into early endosomes. Published biochemical studies have identified two mechanisms of lipoprotein release: one that involves the β-propeller module of the LDLR and a second that is independent of this module. Quantitative imaging comparing uptake supported by the normal LDLR or by an LDLR variant incapable of β-propeller-dependent release show that the β-propeller-independent process is sufficient for release for both lipoproteins, but that the β-propeller process accelerates both LDL and β-VLDL release. Together these findings define where, when and how lipoprotein release occurs and provide a generalizable methodology for visualizing endocytic handling in situ.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein receptor gene family, Lipoproteins, Endocytosis, Endosome, Release, LDL receptor

55

The known link between obesity and cancer suggests an important interaction between the host lipid metabolism and tumorigenesis. Here, we used a syngeneic tumor graft model to demonstrate that tumor development influences the host lipid metabolism. BCR-Abl-transformed precursor B cell tumors induced hyperlipidemia by stimulating very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production and blunting VLDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) turnover. To assess whether tumor progression was dependent on tumor-induced hyperlipidemia, we utilized the VLDL production-deficient mouse model, carboxylesterase3/triacylglycerol hydrolase (Ces3/TGH) knockout mice. In Ces3/Tgh(-/-) tumor-bearing mice, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were attenuated. Importantly tumor weight was reduced in Ces3/Tgh(-/-) mice. Mechanistically, reduced tumor growth in Ces3/Tgh(-/-) mice was attributed to reversal of tumor-induced PCSK9-mediated degradation of hepatic LDLR and decrease of LDL turnover. Our data demonstrate that tumor-induced hyperlipidemia encompasses a feed-forward loop that reprograms hepatic lipoprotein homeostasis in part by providing LDL cholesterol to support tumor growth.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, Low-density lipoprotein, Atheroma, Lipoproteins, Apolipoprotein B, Very low-density lipoprotein, Intermediate-density lipoprotein

28

Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, Low-density lipoprotein, Atheroma, Lipid disorders, Niacin, High-density lipoprotein, Lipoproteins

23

The Open-Label Study of Long-term Evaluation Against LDL-C (OSLER-1) evaluated the durability of long-term efficacy and safety during long-term therapy with evolocumab, a monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9).

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Atheroma, Niacin, Lipoproteins

18

Treatment of dyslipidemia patients with lipid-lowering drugs leads to a significant reduction in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) level and a low to moderate level of increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in plasma. However, a possible role of these drugs in altering morphology and distribution of cholesterol particles is poorly understood. Here, we describe the in vitro evaluation of lipid-lowering drug effects in modulating morphological features of cholesterol particles using the plaque array method in combination with imaging flow cytometry. Image analyses of the cholesterol particles indicated that lovastatin, simvastatin, ezetimibe, and atorvastatin induce the formation of both globular and linear strand-shaped particles, whereas niacin, fibrates, fluvastatin, and rosuvastatin induce the formation of only globular-shaped particles. Next, purified very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL particles incubated with these drugs showed changes in the morphology and image texture of cholesterol particles subpopulations. Furthermore, screening of 50 serum samples revealed the presence of a higher level of linear shaped HDL cholesterol particles in subjects with dyslipidemia (mean of 18.3%) compared to the age-matched normal (mean of 11.1%) samples. We also observed considerable variations in lipid-lowering drug effects on reducing linear shaped LDL and HDL cholesterol particles formation in serum samples. These findings indicate that lipid-lowering drugs, in addition to their cell-mediated hypolipidemic effects, may directly modulate morphology of cholesterol particles by a non-enzymatic mechanism of action. The outcomes of these results have potential to inform diagnosis of atherosclerosis and predict optimal lipid-lowering therapy.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, Low-density lipoprotein, Statin, Atheroma, Niacin, High-density lipoprotein, Lipoproteins

18

The biological functions of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) contribute to explaining the cardioprotective role of the lipoprotein beyond quantitative HDL cholesterol levels. A few small-scale interventions with a single antioxidant have improved some HDL functions. However, to date, no long-term, large-scale, randomized controlled trial has been conducted to assess the effects of an antioxidant-rich dietary pattern (such as a traditional Mediterranean diet [TMD]) on HDL function in humans.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Nutrition, Atherosclerosis, Randomized controlled trial, Low-density lipoprotein, Niacin, High-density lipoprotein, Lipoproteins

13

The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) dietary pattern, which is high in fruit, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods, significantly lowers blood pressure as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Nutrition, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Atheroma, Lipoprotein, High-density lipoprotein, Lipoproteins

5

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol is a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease independent of reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. BACKGROUND: Elevated remnant cholesterol is associated with elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with reduced HDL cholesterol, and all are associated with ischemic heart disease. METHODS: A total of 73,513 subjects from Copenhagen were genotyped, of whom 11,984 had ischemic heart disease diagnosed between 1976 and 2010. Fifteen genetic variants were selected, affecting: 1) nonfasting remnant cholesterol alone; 2) nonfasting remnant cholesterol and HDL cholesterol combined; 3) HDL cholesterol alone; or 4) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol alone as a positive control. The variants were used in a Mendelian randomization design. RESULTS: The causal odds ratio for a 1 mmol/l (39 mg/dl) genetic increase of nonfasting remnant cholesterol was 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9 to 4.2), with a corresponding observational hazard ratio of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3 to 1.5). For the ratio of nonfasting remnant cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, corresponding values were 2.9 (95% CI: 1.9 to 4.6) causal and 1.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) observational for a 1-unit increase. However, for HDL cholesterol, corresponding values were 0.7 (95% CI: 0.4 to 1.4) causal and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4 to 1.7) observational for a 1 mmol/l (39 mg/dl) decrease. Finally, for LDL cholesterol, corresponding values were 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6) causal and 1.1 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.2) observational for a 1 mmol/l (39 mg/dl) increase. CONCLUSIONS: A nonfasting remnant cholesterol increase of 1 mmol/l (39 mg/dl) is associated with a 2.8-fold causal risk for ischemic heart disease, independent of reduced HDL cholesterol. This implies that elevated cholesterol content of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles causes ischemic heart disease. However, because pleiotropic effects of the genetic variants studied cannot be totally excluded, these findings need to be confirmed using additional genetic variants and/or randomized intervention trials.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Low-density lipoprotein, Atheroma, Niacin, High-density lipoprotein, Lipoproteins