SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Lipoprotein(a)

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Coagulation and prothrombotic potential have genuinely been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. However, not all studies in this regard are conclusive. Some clinical trials have shown an increased frequency of cardiovascular complications in patients receiving direct thrombin inhibitors. Previous data from human subjects after acute cardiovascular events showed an inverse association between the thrombin generation marker F1+2 and cardiovascular endpoints indicating that not the lowest, but a slightly elevated propensity for thrombin generation is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events. This observation has been supported by findings in animal models of atherosclerosis. Hence, we evaluated the association between the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and cardiovascular death (CVD) and markers of vascular dysfunction in a large prospective study with long-term follow up.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Cardiovascular diseases, Direct thrombin inhibitor, Lipoprotein(a)

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Clinical evidence has linked vascular calcification in advanced atherosclerotic plaques with overt cardiovascular disease and mortality. Bone resorbing monocyte-derived osteoclast-like cells are sparse in these plaques, indicating that their differentiation capability could be suppressed. Here, we seek to characterize the process of osteoclastogenesis by identifying novel regulators and pathways, with the aim of exploring possible strategies to reduce calcification.

Concepts: Death, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Vitamin C, Lipoprotein(a)

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The study of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) associated with night work is difficult due to the long period required for conditions to manifest and the healthy-worker effect. Analyzing asymptomatic pre-clinical changes in the atherosclerotic process is a way to assess the pathways between exposure to night work and CVD.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Cardiovascular diseases, Structural equation modeling, Lipoprotein(a)

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Platelet activation, including the formation of monocyte platelet aggregates (MPAs), contributes to atherosclerosis, thrombus formation and acute coronary syndromes. Regular participation in exercise can lower cardiovascular risk, but little is known regarding the impact of exercise training on platelet function. We investigated the effect of 6 months of walking exercise on platelet function in sedentary older adults without significant cardiovascular disease. Twenty-seven participants were randomly allocated to 6 months of either: no-exercise (n=13) or 3 x 50 mins/wk of supervised centre-based walking (n=14). Circulating and agonist induced MPAs were assessed using flow cytometry before (month 0 0M) and after (month 6 6M) the intervention. Circulating MPAs increased from 0M (3.7 {plus minus} 1.0%) to 6M (4.7 {plus minus} 1.6%) in the no-exercise group (P = 0.009), whereas a non-significant decrease was observed in the walking group (0M 4.3 {plus minus} 1.7% vs 6M 3.7 {plus minus} 1.2, P = 0.052). The change in MPAs between groups was significant (P = 0.001). There were no differences between groups in platelet responses to agonists across the interventions (all P > 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest that the absence of regular exercise may increase MPAs, which are cellular mediators involved in atherosclerosis, whilst regular walking inhibits such increases. The thrombotic function of platelets appear to be relatively unaltered by exercise training. This study provides novel data related to the cardio-protective effects associated with participation in exercise.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Platelet, Flow cytometry, Lipoprotein(a)

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Current cholesterol guidelines recommend using 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) to guide informed decisions regarding statin therapy, yet patients may have difficulty conceptualizing absolute risk estimates. Peer comparisons may provide an improved tool for patient risk comprehension.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Statin, Cardiovascular diseases, Lipoprotein(a)

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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden and is independently associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in the general population using prognostic models based on routinely collected risk factors is embedded in clinical practice. In CKD, prognostic models may misrepresent risk due to the interplay of traditional atherosclerotic and non-traditional risk factors. This systematic review’s aim was to identify routinely collected risk factors for inclusion in a CKD-specific cardiovascular prognostic model.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Medicine, Epidemiology, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Lipoprotein(a)

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Atherosclerosis is a well-known cause of cardiovascular disease and is associated with a variety of inflammatory reactions. However, an adequate large-animal model of advanced plaques to investigate the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis is lacking. Therefore, we developed and assessed a swine model of advanced atherosclerotic plaques with macrophage polarization.

Concepts: Inflammation, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Macrophage, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Lipoprotein(a)

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Few studies have investigated the association between ectopic fat from different depots and cardiovascular risk scores and their components in the same population, and none have investigated these relations in South Asians. In a cross-sectional analysis of 796 participants in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study who had measurements of visceral, subcutaneous, pericardial, hepatic, and intermuscular fat from abdominal and cardiac computed tomography scans, we used linear regression to determine the associations of 1 standard deviation difference in each ectopic fat depot with pooled cohort risk score and its components. Pericardial and visceral fat were more strongly associated with the pooled cohort risk score (3.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5 to 3.7, and 2.7%, 95% CI 2.1 to 3.3, respectively) and components than intermuscular fat (2.3%, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.0); subcutaneous fat was inversely associated with the pooled cohort risk score (-2.6%, 95% CI -3.2 to 1.9) and hepatic fat attenuation was not linearly associated with the pooled cohort risk score when mutually adjusted (-0.3%, 95% CI -0.9 to 0.4). Associations for risk factor components differed by fat depot. In conclusion, subcutaneous and hepatic fat may have different functions than fat stored in other depots in South Asians. Determining whether these relations are heterogeneous by race may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying CVD disparities.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, United States, Low-density lipoprotein, Cardiovascular diseases, Lipoprotein(a)

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Cardiovascular diseases are a consequence of genetic and epigenetic interactions. Inflammation contributes toward the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Previous studies have shown that microRNA (miR) 155 plays a role in cardiovascular disease, including the prevention of inflammatory infiltration, regulation of autophagy, and participation of immunoreactions. However, the change of miR-155 level in the development of atherosclerosis remains to be determined. The initial objective of this study was that CHD patients would have altered serum miR-155 level. We also aim to identify whether circulating miR-155 content could be used as a predictor for severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Sample was collected from 300 CHD patients and 100 controls. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was utilized on RNA isolated from plasma. Expression of miR-155 was identified on the basis of the quartiles of the Gensini score, and association between the microRNA and CHD was analyzed. CHD patients had higher miR-155 level in comparison to controls (p < .001), and the miRNA content significantly increased following an increasing Gensini score (p < .001). Gensini score was significantly associated with miR-155 expression (r = 0.6124, p < .001). Our findings suggest that interaction between circulating miR-155 expressions with classical risk factors of atherosclerotic lesions, and serum miR-155 content may serve as a novel biomarker for evaluating severity of CHD.

Concepts: Inflammation, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Artery, Lipoprotein(a)

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Patient reports of their adherence behaviors, concerns about statins, and perceptions of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk could inform approaches for improving adherence to statin therapy. We examined these factors and their associations with adherence.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Statin, Cardiovascular diseases, Lipoprotein(a)