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Concept: Lipid


Ketone bodies are the most energy-efficient fuel and yield more ATP per mole of substrate than pyruvate and increase the free energy released from ATP hydrolysis. Elevation of circulating ketones via high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets has been used for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy and for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease. Ketones may also be beneficial for muscle and brain in times of stress, such as endurance exercise. The challenge has been to raise circulating ketone levels by using a palatable diet without altering lipid levels. We found that blood ketone levels can be increased and cholesterol and triglycerides decreased by feeding rats a novel ketone ester diet: chow that is supplemented with ®-3-hydroxybutyl ®-3-hydroxybutyrate as 30% of calories. For 5 d, rats on the ketone diet ran 32% further on a treadmill than did control rats that ate an isocaloric diet that was supplemented with either corn starch or palm oil (P < 0.05). Ketone-fed rats completed an 8-arm radial maze test 38% faster than did those on the other diets, making more correct decisions before making a mistake (P < 0.05). Isolated, perfused hearts from rats that were fed the ketone diet had greater free energy available from ATP hydrolysis during increased work than did hearts from rats on the other diets as shown by using [(31)P]-NMR spectroscopy. The novel ketone diet, therefore, improved physical performance and cognitive function in rats, and its energy-sparing properties suggest that it may help to treat a range of human conditions with metabolic abnormalities.-Murray, A. J., Knight, N. S., Cole, M. A., Cochlin, L. E., Carter, E., Tchabanenko, K., Pichulik, T., Gulston, M. K., Atherton, H. J., Schroeder, M. A., Deacon, R. M. J., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T., Pawlosky, R., Rawlins, J. N. P., Tyler, D. J., Griffin, J. L., Robertson, J., Veech, R. L., Clarke, K. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance.

Concepts: Metabolism, Nutrition, Adenosine triphosphate, Fatty acid, Lipid, Ketone, Ketone bodies, Carbohydrate


ABSTRACT New treatments are needed for extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), such as Acinetobacter baumannii. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was previously reported to enhance bacterial clearance of GNB, including A. baumannii. However, here we have shown that 100% of wild-type mice versus 0% of TLR4-deficient mice died of septic shock due to A. baumannii infection, despite having similar tissue bacterial burdens. The strain lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content and TLR4 activation by extracted LPS did not correlate with in vivo virulence, nor did colistin resistance due to LPS phosphoethanolamine modification. However, more-virulent strains shed more LPS during growth than less-virulent strains, resulting in enhanced TLR4 activation. Due to the role of LPS in A. baumannii virulence, an LpxC inhibitor (which affects lipid A biosynthesis) antibiotic was tested. The LpxC inhibitor did not inhibit growth of the bacterium (MIC > 512 µg/ml) but suppressed A. baumannii LPS-mediated activation of TLR4. Treatment of infected mice with the LpxC inhibitor enhanced clearance of the bacteria by enhancing opsonophagocytic killing, reduced serum LPS concentrations and inflammation, and completely protected the mice from lethal infection. These results identify a previously unappreciated potential for the new class of LpxC inhibitor antibiotics to treat XDR A. baumannii infections. Furthermore, they have far-reaching implications for pathogenesis and treatment of infections caused by GNB and for the discovery of novel antibiotics not detected by standard in vitro screens. IMPORTANCE Novel treatments are needed for infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii, a Gram-negative bacterium that is extremely antibiotic resistant. The current study was undertaken to understand the immunopathogenesis of these infections, as a basis for defining novel treatments. The primary strain characteristic that differentiated virulent from less-virulent strains was shedding of Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during growth. A novel class of antibiotics, called LpxC inhibitors, block LPS synthesis, but these drugs do not demonstrate the ability to kill A. baumannii in vitro. We found that an LpxC inhibitor blocked the ability of bacteria to activate the sepsis cascade, enhanced opsonophagocytic killing of the bacteria, and protected mice from lethal infection. Thus, an entire new class of antibiotics which is already in development has heretofore-unrecognized potential to treat A. baumannii infections. Furthermore, standard antibiotic screens based on in vitro killing failed to detect this treatment potential of LpxC inhibitors for A. baumannii infections.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Microbiology, Antibiotic resistance, Lipid, Penicillin, Acinetobacter baumannii, Endotoxin


The peripheral lungs are a potential entrance portal for nanoparticles into the human body due to their large surface area. The fact that nanoparticles can be deposited in the alveolar region of the lungs is of interest for pulmonary drug delivery strategies and is of equal importance for toxicological considerations. Therefore, a detailed understanding of nanoparticle interaction with the structures of this largest and most sensitive part of the lungs is important for both nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. Astonishingly, there is still little known about the bio-nano interactions that occur after nanoparticle deposition in the alveoli. In this study, we compared the effects of surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) on the clearance of magnetite nanoparticles (mNP) with either more hydrophilic (starch) or hydrophobic (phosphatidylcholine) surface modification by an alveolar macrophage (AM) cell line (MH-S) using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Both proteins enhanced the AM uptake of mNP compared with pristine nanoparticles; for the hydrophilic ST-mNP, this effect was strongest with SP-D, whereas for the hydrophobic PL-mNP it was most pronounced with SP-A. Using gel electrophoretic and dynamic light scattering methods, we were able to demonstrate that the observed cellular effects were related to protein adsorption and to protein-mediated interference with the colloidal stability. Next, we investigated the influence of various surfactant lipids on nanoparticle uptake by AM because lipids are the major surfactant component. Synthetic surfactant lipid and isolated native surfactant preparations significantly modulated the effects exerted by SP-A and SP-D, respectively, resulting in comparable levels of macrophage interaction for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanoparticles. Our findings suggest that because of the interplay of both surfactant lipids and proteins, the AM clearance of nanoparticles is essentially the same, regardless of different intrinsic surface properties.

Concepts: Protein, Metabolism, Lung, Cell biology, Nanotechnology, Colloid, Lipid, Pulmonary surfactant


Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PNLIP) are primary lipases that are critical for triacylglyceride digestion in human. Since reduced metabolism of triacylglyceride might be a plausible concept for weight loss, we screened for potential PNLIP inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the aim to identify weight loss candidate compounds. TCM candidates Aurantiamide, Cnidiadin, and 2-hexadecenoic acid exhibited higher Dock Scores than the commercial drug Orlistat, and were also predicted to have inhibitory characteristics against PNLIP using constructed MLR (R(2) = 0.8664) and SVM (R(2) = 0.9030) models. Molecular dynamics indicated that the TCM-PNLIP complexes formed were stable. We identified that the PNLIP binding site has several residues that can serve as anchors, and a hydrophobic corridor that provides additional stability to the complex. Aurantiamide, Cnidiadin, and 2-hexadecenoic acid all have features that correspond to these binding site features, indicating their potential as candidates for PNLIP inhibitors. The information presented in this study may provide helpful insights to designing novel weight-control drugs.

Concepts: Protein, Health, Enzyme, Triglyceride, Lipid, Lipase, Traditional Chinese characters, Pancreatic lipase


The present study was designed to verify the influence of acute fat loading on high density lipoprotein (HDL) composition, and the involvement of liver and different segments of small intestine in the changes observed.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Liver, Lipoprotein, High-density lipoprotein, Lipoproteins, Small intestine, Lipid, Olive oil


BACKGROUND & AIMS: The endocannabinoid and eicosanoid lipid signaling pathways have important roles in inflammatory syndromes. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) links these pathways, hydrolyzing the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol to generate the arachidonic acid precursor pool for prostaglandin production. We investigated whether blocking MAGL protects against inflammation and damage from hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and other insults. METHODS: We analyzed the effects of hepatic I/R in mice given the selective MAGL inhibitor JZL184, in Mgll-/-mice, FAAH-/- mice, and in Cnr1(-/-)and Cnr2(-/-)mice, which have disruptions in the cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB(½)). Liver tissues were collected and analyzed, along with cultured hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. We measured endocannabinoids, eicosanoids, and markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death using molecular biology, biochemistry, and mass spectrometry analyses. RESULTS: Wild-type mice given JZL184 and Mgll-/- mice were protected from hepatic I/R injury by a mechanism that involved increased endocannabinoid signaling via CB(2) and reduced production of eicosanoids in the liver. JZL184 suppressed the inflammation and oxidative stress that mediate hepatic I/R injury. Hepatocytes were the major source of hepatic MAGL activity and endocannabinoid and eicosanoid production. JZL184 also protected from induction of liver injury by D-(+)-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharides or CCl(4). CONCLUSIONS: MAGL promotes hepatic injury via endocannabinoid and eicosanoid signaling; blockade of this pathway protects mice from liver injury. MAGL inhibitors might be developed to treat for conditions that expose the liver to oxidative stress and inflammatory damage.

Concepts: Inflammation, Liver, Lipid, Eicosanoid, Prostaglandin, Leukotriene, Arachidonic acid, Monoacylglycerol lipase


Chloroplast membrane lipid synthesis relies on the import of glycerolipids from the ER. The TGD (TriGalactosylDiacylglycerol) proteins are required for this lipid transfer process. The TGD1, 2, and 3 proteins form a putative ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter transporting ER-derived lipids through the inner envelope membrane of the chloroplast, while TGD4 binds phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) and resides in the outer chloroplast envelope. We identified two sequences in TGD4, amino acids 1-80 and 110-145, which are necessary and sufficient for PtdOH binding. Deletion of both sequences abolished PtdOH binding activity. We also found that TGD4 from 18:3 plants bound specifically and with increased affinity PtdOH. TGD4 did not interact with other proteins and formed a homodimer both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that TGD4 is an integral dimeric β-barrel lipid transfer protein that binds PtdOH with its N-terminus and contains dimerization domains at its C-terminus.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Amino acid, Acid, Metabolism, Chloroplast, Lipid, Inner membrane


Obesity is a progressive metabolic disorder in the current world population, and is characterized by the excess deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Pancreatic lipase is one of the key enzymes in the hydrolysis of triglycerides into monoglycerides and free fatty acids, and is thus considered a promising target for the treatment of obesity. The present drugs used for treating obesity do not give satisfactory results, and on prolonged usage result in severe side effects. In view of the drastic increase in the obese population day-to-day, there is a greater need to discover new drugs with lesser side effects.

Concepts: Metabolism, Nutrition, Fatty acid, Enzyme, Triglyceride, Fat, Fatty acid metabolism, Lipid


In this data article we provide topologies and force field parameters files for molecular dynamics simulations of lipids in the OPLS-aa force field using the GROMACS package. This is the first systematic parameterization of lipid molecules in this force field. Topologies are provided for four phosphatidylcholines: saturated DPPC, mono-cis unsaturated POPC and DOPC, and mono-trans unsaturated PEPC. Parameterization of the phosphatidylcholines was achieved in two steps: first, we supplemented the OPLS force field parameters for DPPC with new parameters for torsion angles and van der Waals parameters for the carbon and hydrogen atoms in the acyl chains, as well as new partial atomic charges and parameters for torsion angles in the phosphatidylcholine and glycerol moieties [1]. Next, we derived parameters for the cis and trans double bonds and the neighboring them single bonds [2]. Additionally, we provide GROMACS input files with parameters describing simulation conditions (md.mdp), which are strongly recommended to be used with these lipids models. The data are associated with the research article “Cis and trans unsaturated phosphatidylcholine bilayers: a molecular dynamics simulation study” [2] and provided as supporting materials.

Concepts: Molecular dynamics, Atom, Chemical bond, Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Lecithin, GROMACS, OPLS


Lipid droplet (LD), a multi-functional organelle, is often found to associate with other cellular membranous structures and vary in size in a given cell, which may be related to their functional diversity. Here we established a method to separate LD subpopulations from isolated CHO K2 LDs into three different size categories. The subpopulation with smallest LDs was nearly free of ER and other membranous structures while those with larger LDs contained intact ER. These distinct subpopulations of LDs differed in their protein composition and ability to recruit proteins. This method was also applicable to LDs obtained from other sources, such as Huh7 cells, mouse liver and brown adipose tissue, et al. We developed an in vitro assay requiring only isolated LDs, Coenzyme A, and ATP to drive lipid synthesis. The LD subpopulation nearly depleted of ER was able to incorporate fatty acids into triacylglycerol and phospholipids. Together, our data demonstrate that LDs in a given cell are heterogeneous in size and function, and suggest that LDs are one of cellular lipid synthetic organelles.

Concepts: Protein, Cell nucleus, Metabolism, Fatty acid, Fat, Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Glycerol