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Concept: Lipase

170

Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PNLIP) are primary lipases that are critical for triacylglyceride digestion in human. Since reduced metabolism of triacylglyceride might be a plausible concept for weight loss, we screened for potential PNLIP inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the aim to identify weight loss candidate compounds. TCM candidates Aurantiamide, Cnidiadin, and 2-hexadecenoic acid exhibited higher Dock Scores than the commercial drug Orlistat, and were also predicted to have inhibitory characteristics against PNLIP using constructed MLR (R(2) = 0.8664) and SVM (R(2) = 0.9030) models. Molecular dynamics indicated that the TCM-PNLIP complexes formed were stable. We identified that the PNLIP binding site has several residues that can serve as anchors, and a hydrophobic corridor that provides additional stability to the complex. Aurantiamide, Cnidiadin, and 2-hexadecenoic acid all have features that correspond to these binding site features, indicating their potential as candidates for PNLIP inhibitors. The information presented in this study may provide helpful insights to designing novel weight-control drugs.

Concepts: Protein, Health, Enzyme, Triglyceride, Lipid, Lipase, Traditional Chinese characters, Pancreatic lipase

163

Activity-guided isolation of a methanolic extract of Galla Rhois using pancreatic lipase and 3T3-L1 adipocytes led to the isolation of seven phenolic compounds: protoaphin-fb (1), 2-O-digalloyl-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose (2), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose (3), 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose (4), 3-hydroxy-5-methoxy-phenol 1-O-b-D-glucoside (5), methylgallate (6), and gallic acid (7). Their structures were established on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase, and compounds 1-5 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on this enzyme, with IC50 values ranging from 30.6 ± 2.4 to 3.5 ± 0.5 mM. In addition, the highly galloylated compound 2 was also found to induce potent inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

Concepts: Enzyme, Pancreas, Cytoplasm, Fat, Adipocyte, Lipase, Gallic acid, Pancreatic lipase

142

Lipases are promising enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol ester bonds at the oil/water interface. Apart from allowing biocatalyst reuse, immobilization can also affect enzyme structure consequently influencing its activity, selectivity, and stability. The lipase from Penicillium sp. section Gracilenta (CBMAI 1583) was successfully immobilized on supports bearing butyl, phenyl, octyl, octadecyl, and divinylbenzyl hydrophobic moieties wherein lipases were adsorbed through the highly hydrophobic opened active site. The highest activity in aqueous medium was observed for the enzyme adsorbed on octyl support, with a 150% hyperactivation regarding the soluble enzyme activity, and the highest adsorption strength was verified with the most hydrophobic support (octadecyl Sepabeads), requiring 5% Triton X-100 to desorb the enzyme from the support. Most of the derivatives presented improved properties such as higher stability to pH, temperature, and organic solvents than the covalently immobilized CNBr derivative (prepared under very mild experimental conditions and thus a reference mimicking free-enzyme behavior). A 30.8- and 46.3-fold thermostabilization was achieved in aqueous medium, respectively, by the octyl Sepharose and Toyopearl butyl derivatives at 60 °C, in relation to the CNBr derivative. The octyl- and phenyl-agarose derivatives retained 50% activity after four and seven cycles of p-nitrophenyl palmitate hydrolysis, respectively. Different derivatives exhibited different properties regarding their properties for fish oil hydrolysis in aqueous medium and ethanolysis in anhydrous medium. The most active derivative in ethanolysis of fish oil was the enzyme adsorbed on a surface covered by divinylbenzyl moieties and it was 50-fold more active than the enzyme adsorbed on octadecyl support. Despite having identical mechanisms of immobilization, different hydrophobic supports seem to promote different shapes of the adsorbed open active site of the lipase and hence different functional properties.

Concepts: Enzyme, Catalysis, Starch, Adsorption, PH, Lipase, Enzymes, Immobilized enzyme

93

Background Higher-than-normal levels of circulating triglycerides are a risk factor for ischemic cardiovascular disease. Activation of lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that is inhibited by angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), has been shown to reduce levels of circulating triglycerides. Methods We sequenced the exons of ANGPTL4 in samples obtain from 42,930 participants of predominantly European ancestry in the DiscovEHR human genetics study. We performed tests of association between lipid levels and the missense E40K variant (which has been associated with reduced plasma triglyceride levels) and other inactivating mutations. We then tested for associations between coronary artery disease and the E40K variant and other inactivating mutations in 10,552 participants with coronary artery disease and 29,223 controls. We also tested the effect of a human monoclonal antibody against ANGPTL4 on lipid levels in mice and monkeys. Results We identified 1661 heterozygotes and 17 homozygotes for the E40K variant and 75 participants who had 13 other monoallelic inactivating mutations in ANGPTL4. The levels of triglycerides were 13% lower and the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were 7% higher among carriers of the E40K variant than among noncarriers. Carriers of the E40K variant were also significantly less likely than noncarriers to have coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.92; P=0.002). K40 homozygotes had markedly lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of HDL cholesterol than did heterozygotes. Carriers of other inactivating mutations also had lower triglyceride levels and higher HDL cholesterol levels and were less likely to have coronary artery disease than were noncarriers. Monoclonal antibody inhibition of Angptl4 in mice and monkeys reduced triglyceride levels. Conclusions Carriers of E40K and other inactivating mutations in ANGPTL4 had lower levels of triglycerides and a lower risk of coronary artery disease than did noncarriers. The inhibition of Angptl4 in mice and monkeys also resulted in corresponding reductions in these values. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.).

Concepts: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery disease, Atheroma, Monoclonal antibodies, Triglyceride, Lipid, Lipase

90

Serotonin, a central neuromodulator with ancient ties to feeding and metabolism, is a major driver of body fat loss. However, mechanisms by which central serotonin action leads to fat loss remain unknown. Here, we report that the FLP-7 neuropeptide and its cognate receptor, NPR-22, function as the ligand-receptor pair that defines the neuroendocrine axis of serotonergic body fat loss in Caenorhabditis elegans. FLP-7 is secreted as a neuroendocrine peptide in proportion to fluctuations in neural serotonin circuit functions, and its release is regulated from secretory neurons via the nutrient sensor AMPK. FLP-7 acts via the NPR-22/Tachykinin2 receptor in the intestine and drives fat loss via the adipocyte triglyceride lipase ATGL-1. Importantly, this ligand-receptor pair does not alter other serotonin-dependent behaviours including food intake. For global modulators such as serotonin, the use of distinct neuroendocrine peptides for each output may be one means to achieve phenotypic selectivity.

Concepts: Protein, Neuron, Nutrition, Caenorhabditis elegans, Triglyceride, Fat, Lipid, Lipase

50

Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by deleterious mutations in the LIPA gene. The age at onset and rate of progression vary greatly and this may relate to the nature of the underlying mutations. Patients presenting in infancy have the most rapidly progressive disease, developing signs and symptoms in the first weeks of life and rarely surviving beyond 6 months of age. Children and adults typically present with some combination of dyslipidaemia, hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases, and microvesicular hepatosteatosis on biopsy. Liver damage with progression to fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure occurs in a large proportion of patients. Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are common features, and cardiovascular disease may manifest as early as childhood. Given that these clinical manifestations are shared with other cardiovascular, liver and metabolic diseases, it is not surprising that LAL-D is under-recognized in clinical practice. This article provides practical guidance to lipidologists, endocrinologists, cardiologists and hepatologists on how to recognize individuals with this life-limiting disease. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed with a view to achieving definitive diagnosis using a recently developed blood test for lysosomal acid lipase. Finally, current management options are reviewed in light of the ongoing development of enzyme replacement therapy with sebelipase alfa (Synageva BioPharma Corp., Lexington, MA, USA), a recombinant human lysosomal acid lipase enzyme.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Metabolism, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Liver, Hepatology, Lipase

42

To characterize key clinical manifestations of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL D) in children and adults.

Concepts: Lysosome, Lipase, Lysosomal lipase

28

Pancreatic lipase is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diet-induced obesity in humans. In an ongoing search for new pancreatic lipase inhibitors from natural sources, a methanolic extract of marine brown algae, Eisenia bicyclis, showed a significant inhibitory effect against pancreatic lipase. Bioassay-guided isolation of this methanolic extract using a pancreatic lipase inhibitory assay led to the isolation and identification of six known phlorotannins: eckol (1), fucofuroeckol A (2), 7-phloroeckol (3), dioxindehydroeckol (4), phlorofucofuroeckol A (5), and dieckol (6). The structures were established on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry spectroscopic data interpretation. Among the isolated phloroglucinol polymers, compounds 2 and 3 showed potent inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase with IC(50) values ranging from 37.2 ± 2.3 to 12.7 ± 1.0 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Effect, Nuclear magnetic resonance, John Wiley & Sons, Isotope, Lipase, Astronomical spectroscopy, Pancreatic lipase

28

Context: During the last few decades, the prevalence of obesity in the western world has dramatically increased with epidemic proportions. Hand in hand with this statistic, the incidences of obesity-linked diseases such as diabetes are increasing with pandemic rate. The search for novel drugs and nutritional intervention approaches for obesity is now of significant importance. Objective: The anti-obesity potential of eriodictyol (ERD) and its close structural analogue, sigmoidin A (SGN), were evaluated. SGN was isolated from Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC. (Fabaceae). Materials and methods: Concentrations between 300 and 0.1 µM of test samples and reference drugs made in three-fold dilutions were tested for enzyme inhibitory effects. The major obesity target, pancreatic lipase, was used to test the anti-obesity potential while the selective effects of the compounds were determined through assessments of effects on α-glucosidase. Results: The inhibitory effect of SGN on pancreatic lipase (IC(50), 4.5 ± 0.87 µM) was 30-times greater than that of ERD (IC(50), 134 ± 19.39 µM) while their effect on α-glucosidase enzyme was comparable (IC(50) value of 62.5 ± 9.47 and 57.5 ± 13.15 µM). The anti-obesity drug, orlistat, inhibited pancreatic lipase with an IC(50) value of 0.3 ± 0.04 µM, while the anti-diabetic drug, acarbose, inhibited α-glucosidase with an IC(50) value of 190.6 ± 16.05 µM. Discussion: Although less active than the standard anti-obesity drug, orlistat, the observed activity indicated that prenylation of the flavonoid skeleton potently enhances anti-lipase activity. Conclusion: Such groups of flavonoids need to be further investigated for their therapeutic and nutritional benefit in combating obesity problems.

Concepts: Nutrition, Enzyme, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Anti-diabetic drug, Flavonoid, Lipase, Pancreatic lipase

28

Homozygous lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency is an ultra-orphan disease associated with increased rates of pancreatitis. Current treatments based on acute plasmapheresis allied with ultra-low fat diets are inadequate as responses to fibrates or other triglyceride-lowering therapies tend to be poor. Alipogene tiparvovec is an adeno-associated virus type I (AAV1) gene therapy using a hyper-functional LPL serine(447)-stop (S447X) insert administered intramuscularly under general anaesthetic with allied immunosuppression. Treatment results in histological muscle expression of LPL allied with a transient 40% reduction in triglycerides and improvements in postprandial chylomicron triglyceride content. Alipogene tiparvovec is the first possibly curative treatment for LPL deficiency.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Metabolism, Virus, Triglyceride, Lipoprotein, Lipid, Lipase, Lipoprotein lipase