SciCombinator

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Concept: Ligamentum arteriosum

28

AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of early oral ibuprofen administration on the incidence of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) and define the association between serum ibuprofen levels and ductal closure. METHOD: Preterm infants with a gestational age of <28 weeks and/or birth weight of <1,000 g were randomized either to the intervention (ibuprofen prophylaxis) or control group. The intervention group received oral ibuprofen 10 mg/kg within 12-24 h after birth followed by 5 mg/kg at 24 and 48 h. Serum ibuprofen levels after the treatment were analyzed in the intervention group, and the incidence of hsPDA and complication rates were compared between two groups. RESULTS: Nineteen infants who received one course (three doses) of prophylactic ibuprofen in the intervention group and 17 infants in the control group who underwent an echocardiographic examination on the fourth day of life were analyzed. hsPDA was observed in five (26 %) infants in the intervention group and ten (58 %) infants in the control group (p = 0.09). In the intervention group two infants experienced gastrointestinal bleeding two infants had spontaneous intestinal perforation, and two infants developed acute kidney failure. Mean serum ibuprofen level was 28.7 ± 16.9 mg/L in the intervention group, and there was no correlation between ibuprofen level obtained on the fourth day and ductal closure. CONCLUSION: Oral ibuprofen prophylaxis reduces the rates of hsPDA even it is not statistically significant. The ductal closure rate did not correlate with serum ibuprofen levels. Due to high prevalence of adverse events observed, our data do not support the use of oral ibuprofen for prophylaxis of hsPDA.

Concepts: Renal failure, Fetus, Obstetrics, Ibuprofen, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth, Ligamentum arteriosum

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The persistence of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is frequently encountered in very preterm infants. Neither preventive nor curative treatments of PDA have been shown to improve the outcome of these infants. Since no consensus on optimal treatment of PDA is established, we evaluated the rate of spontaneous PDA closure in infants born before 28 weeks of gestation.

Concepts: Childbirth, Fetus, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth, Ligamentum arteriosum

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To evaluate the predictive factors for the development of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants and to study the morbidities associated with the treatment of PDA during the first hospitalization.

Concepts: Fetus, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth, Ligamentum arteriosum

2

To determine whether a nonintervention approach for treating hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with decreased mortality and/or morbidity compared with a mandatory closure approach in extremely low birth weight infants.

Concepts: Childbirth, Fetus, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth, Ligamentum arteriosum

2

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of most common complications in preterm infants. Although ibuprofen represents the first choice for the closure of PDA, this treatment can cause severe gastrointestinal and adverse renal effects and worsen platelet function. The successful closure of the PDA with paracetamol has been recently reported in several preterm infants, and the safety of paracetamol for this use has been suggested by the available data.

Concepts: Fetus, Randomized controlled trial, Platelet, Ibuprofen, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth, Ligamentum arteriosum

2

The hemodynamically relevant patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants is not well defined. Different clinical and echocardiographic parameters are used and the diagnostic accuracy is unknown because of the lack of a gold standard definition. Our study evaluates the inter-observer repeatability of echocardiographic and Doppler-ultrasound parameters.

Concepts: Fetus, Observational study, Definitionism, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth, Ligamentum arteriosum, Mathematical terminology

1

Observational studies have associated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation among preterm infants with adverse neonatal outcomes and neurodevelopmental impairment in early childhood, with a resultant secular trend away from surgical treatment. However, to our knowledge, studies have inadequately addressed sources of residual bias, including survival bias and major neonatal morbidities arising before exposure to ligation.

Concepts: Scientific method, Fetus, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth, Ligamentum arteriosum, Toddler

1

Finding the optimal pharmacological treatment of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm neonates remains challenging. There is a growing interest in paracetamol as a new drug for PDA closure. In this prospective observational cohort study, we evaluated the effectiveness of intravenous paracetamol in closing a PDA in very low birth weight infants with a hemodynamically significant PDA who either did not respond to ibuprofen or had a contraindication for ibuprofen. They received high-dose paracetamol therapy (15 mg/kg/6 h intravenous) for 3-7 days. Cardiac ultrasounds were performed before and 3 and 7 days after treatment. Thirty-three patients were included with a median gestational age of 25(1/7) weeks (IQR 1.66), a median birth weight of 750 g (IQR 327), and a median postnatal age of 14 days (IQR 12). Paracetamol was ineffective in 27/33 patients (82 %). Even more, after previous exposure to ibuprofen, this was even 100 %.

Concepts: Childbirth, Fetus, Obstetrics, Ibuprofen, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth, Ligamentum arteriosum

1

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) poses a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for clinicians. Diagnosis of persistent PDA and determination of its clinical and hemodynamic significance are challenging. Although the condition has been associated with substantial neonatal morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis, most therapeutic approaches have failed to show improvement in these outcomes. As such, clinicians have tended toward conservative management strategies; however, the benefits and risks of such an approach are unclear. In this review, we explore various clinical diagnostic modalities, echocardiographic parameters for assessment of shunt presence, shunt volume and its effect on cardiovascular and hemodynamic status, and challenges in determining if a PDA is hemodynamically significant and clinically relevant. From the therapeutic aspect, we review current evidence on conservative, pharmacological, and mechanical (surgical or nonsurgical ligation) approaches to PDA closure. Dose, route, duration, and comparison of pharmacological strategies are reviewed, with implications for future research.

Concepts: Therapeutic effect, Fetus, Statistical hypothesis testing, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth, Ligamentum arteriosum, Necrotizing enterocolitis

1

Indomethacin prophylaxis (IP) reduces the risk of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants. However, the optimal time to administer IP has not been determined. We hypothesised that IP at ≤6 h is associated with a lower incidence of IVH or death than if administered at >6-24 h of age.

Concepts: Childbirth, Fetus, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth, Ligamentum arteriosum