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Concept: Levator palpebrae superioris muscle


PURPOSE: To compare nylon monofilament suture with polytetrafluoroethylene sheet for frontalis suspension surgery to treat eyes with congenital ptosis. DESIGN: Retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative, interventional case series. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 49 patients who had undergone 79 eyelid frontalis suspension surgeries to treat congenital ptosis. All of the patients were younger than 16 years and had congenital ptosis with poor levator muscle function. They were treated with frontalis suspension surgery with either a nylon suture or a polytetrafluoroethylene sheet and were followed up for at least 1 year. A single rhomboid loop sling was used for the nylon suture surgery. For the polytetrafluoroethylene sheet, an incision was made in the eyelid crease, and one end of the sheet was fixed to the tarsus and the other was fixed to the frontalis muscle. The main outcome measures were postoperative recurrences and complications. RESULTS: We evaluated 37 eyelids of 25 patients after nylon suture surgery and 42 eyelids of 31 patients after polytetrafluoroethylene sheet surgery. Among these, 9 eyelids of 7 patients were included in both groups. The median postoperative follow-up period was 32 months in both groups. The recurrence rates were 62.2% for the nylon suture group and 0% for the polytetrafluoroethylene sheet group (P < .001). The postoperative complication rates were 0% for the nylon suture group and 7.1% for the polytetrafluoroethylene sheet group (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Frontalis suspension using a polytetrafluoroethylene sheet with direct tarsus and frontalis muscle fixation is a reasonable technique with low rates of recurrences and complications.

Concepts: Comparison, Surgery, Eye, Eyelid, Ptosis, Tarsus, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Dermatochalasis


Upper-eyelid blepharoplasty is a very common procedure in aesthetic plastic surgery. Among all the literature in favor of orbicularis muscle resection, there are no commentaries associated with orbicularis muscle suture and its convenience. This article discusses a new approach: independent resection of the orbicularis oculi muscle similar in size to the resected skin and the subsequent suture of the orbicularis muscle after its resection. This results in a fine reconstruction of the upper-eyelid crease, achieves a good definition of this anatomical structure, and allows correction of asymmetries with the contralateral upper eyelid. The results obtained (98 % of patients satisfied) and no complications with this procedure make it a safe alternative for upper blepharoplasty. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Anatomy, Alternative medicine, Eyelid, Blepharoplasty, Orbicularis oculi muscle, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Orbicularis oris muscle


PURPOSE:: To describe a modified Fasanella-Servat procedure and nomogram for the correction of minimal amounts of ptosis. METHODS:: Retrospective review of this modified Fasanella-Servat procedure was performed on 118 eyelids in 86 consecutive patients over 2, 4-year periods by 1 surgeon (S.C.D.). The amount of tarsectomy was based on the amount of ptosis. RESULTS:: Mean pre- and postoperative margin-to-reflex distance 1 were +0.7 mm and +2.4mm, respectively. One hundred and twelve eyelids (95%) had satisfactory results with postoperative margin-to-reflex distance 1 ≥ 1.5 mm. Eyelid symmetry was achieved in 92% of eyelids to within 0.5 mm. There was no incidence of overcorrection, tarsal buckling, or corneal abrasion. One eyelid had a contour deficit. Tarsectomy amount ranged from 2 mm to 5 mm. Average amount of tarsectomy to eyelid elevation was 2.4:1. CONCLUSION:: The modified Fasanella-Servat procedure is technically easy, time-efficient, and has a low complication rate for the treatment of minimal blepharoptosis (< 2.5 mm) with good levator function and negative phenylephrine test. In the authors' hands, the ratio of tarsectomy to eyelid elevation is approximately 2:1. In addition to other techniques such as levator advancement and Müller's muscle conjunctival resection, the modified Fasanella-Servat technique is a useful adjunct to the modern ptosis surgeon's armamentarium.

Concepts: Ratio, Eye, Conjunctiva, Eyelid, Lacrimal nerve, Ptosis, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Dermatochalasis


Abstract A 34-year-old African-American man was referred for eyelid swelling and ocular discomfort. He was found to have floppy hypertrophic eyelids and marked bilateral mechanical ptosis that was present since childhood. Systemic examination was significant for furrows on his forehead and scalp, coarse facial features, and enlarged hands and feet with clubbing of the fingers and toes. Radiographic imaging of the long bones demonstrated periostosis, and MRI of the head revealed a pituitary macroadenoma. Pituitary and thyroid hormone levels were normal. The patient was diagnosed with pachydermoperiostosis and a non-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. Bilateral upper lid tightening via wedge resection was followed by bilateral external levator advancement ptosis repair in a staged manner. The patient achieved symptom relief and improved lid position postoperatively.

Concepts: Head and neck, Medical terms, Pituitary adenoma, Thyroid, Eyelid, Ptosis, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Dermatochalasis


ABSTRACT Aims: Cicatricial upper eyelid retraction with exposure keratopathy and impending corneal perforation requires prompt intervention. Standard procedures such as isolated levator recession, botulinum toxin, and lid weights will only induce a partial ptosis. Conventional tarsorrhaphy, though ideal to achieve complete closure, is likely to result in dehiscence in these cases. We describe a one-stage technique of levator and Muller’s muscle recession combined with a tarsorrhaphy used in four patients with an impending corneal perforation due to cicatricial lagophthalmos. Methods: This is an interventional, non-comparative retrospective case series of four patients who had undergone tarsorrhaphy in combination with levator recession. Results: In all four cases, it was not possible to mechanically close the eyelids preoperatively due to cicatricial lid retraction involving the middle lamella. The aetiology for lagophthalmos was varied: (Case 1) bilateral sclerosing metastatic breast cancer involving the lids; (Case 2) severe anterior and middle lamella shortening due to actinic changes; (Case 3) middle and posterior lamella shortening due to glaucoma treatment and multiple surgery (Case 4) due to traumatic facial scarring and seventh nerve palsy. In all cases, the corneal thinning and epithelial defects resolved completely following surgery. In one case, we were able to partially reopen the tarsorrhaphy for further corneal surgery. Discussion: We describe a safe, effective and reversible surgical procedure for managing cases with cicatricial upper eyelid retraction, which would otherwise lead to serious corneal complications.

Concepts: Breast cancer, Surgery, Ophthalmology, Eyelid, Ptosis, Tears, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Dermatochalasis


Treacher Collins syndrome is a disorder characterized by various congenital soft tissue anomalies involving hypoplasia of the zygoma, maxilla, and mandible. A variety of treatments have been reported to date. These treatments can be classified into 2 major types. The first type involves osteotomy for hard tissue such as the zygoma and mandible. The second type involves plastic surgery using bone grafting in the malar region and soft tissue repair of eyelid deformities. We devised a new treatment to comprehensively correct hard and soft tissue deformities in the upper half of the face of Treacher Collins patients. The aim was to “change facial features and make it difficult to tell that the patients have this disorder.” This innovative treatment strategy consists of 3 stages: (1) placement of dermal fat graft from the lower eyelid to the malar subcutaneous area, (2) custom-made synthetic zygomatic bone grafting, and (3) Z-plasty flap transposition from the upper to the lower eyelid and superior repositioning and fixation of the lateral canthal tendon using a Mitek anchor system. This method was used on 4 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome who had moderate to severe hypoplasia of the zygomas and the lower eyelids. Facial features of these patients were markedly improved and very good results were obtained. There were no major complications intraoperatively or postoperatively in any of the patients during the series of treatments. In synthetic bone grafting in the second stage, the implant in some patients was in the way of the infraorbital nerve. Thus, the nerve was detached and then sutured under the microscope. Postoperatively, patients had almost full restoration of sensory nerve torpor within 5 to 6 months. We devised a 3-stage treatment to “change facial features” of patients with hypoplasia of the upper half of the face due to Treacher Collins syndrome. The treatment protocol provided a very effective way to treat deformities of the upper half of the face in patients with Treacher Collins syndrome.

Concepts: Syndromes, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Eyelid, Maxilla, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Treacher Collins syndrome, Zygomatic bone


BACKGROUND: A number of factors, including visibility of the orbicularis oculi muscle through thin skin, can cause dark circles around the eyes. Fat grafts have been used to augment the lower eyelid skin to correct dark circles, but irregularities caused by leaving visible lumps of the fat can occur. We used collagenase-digested fat cell grafts to correct these deformities. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fat was aspirated from the medial thigh using the Coleman method. After centrifugation, the middle fat layer was segregated, digested using Clostridium histolyticum-derived type II collagenase, and mixed with Hartman’s solution. The grafts were injected into the infradermal layer using blunt 22-G needles. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients were evaluated for improvement using photographic evidence; 55 (67.1%) showed improvement, 23 (28%) showed no difference, and four (4.9%) had worsened from preoperative findings. There were no visible lumps of fat, contour irregularities, or fat necroses. Postoperative edema and ecchymosis were minimal. CONCLUSION: Collagenase-digested fat cell grafts provide another option for correcting dark circles by augmenting thin skin. Further histologic evaluation of the grafted collagenase-digested fat cells is recommended.

Concepts: Cytoplasm, Muscle, Fat, Adipose tissue, Adipocyte, Orbicularis oculi muscle, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Orbicularis oris muscle


An 8-year-old girl presented to the neurology department with a complaint of insidious onset of left-sided ptosis and restricted elevation of the left eye. A CT scan orbit and brain revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the levator palpebral superioris (LPS) and superior rectus (SR) muscle complex of the left eye and left parietal and right temporal region. She was started on steroid, followed by albendazole with improvement. The LPS/SR complex is the least common site of involvement among extraocular muscles in ocular cysticercosis. Specially, with brain neurocysticercosis (NCC), it is extremely rare. We report an unusual association of multiple brain NCC with ocular cysticercosis involving LPS and SR muscle.

Concepts: Eye, Superior rectus muscle, Extraocular muscles, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle


BACKGROUND: Many variations in the surgical treatment of upper eyelid blepharoplasty have been described, including orbicularis oculi muscle stripping. There is no evidence in the literature to support the efficacy of this technique in improving the aesthetic results of the procedure. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a single-blind, randomized, controlled, split-face pilot study to evaluate the effects of orbicularis oculi muscle stripping on upper lid blepharoplasty. METHODS: Ten subjects were randomized to receive upper lid blepharoplasty with orbicularis oculi muscle stripping on one side and skin-only blepharoplasty on the other. Patients and two blinded physicians evaluated the aesthetics of the eyelids at 1-, 3-, and 17-month follow-up visits. RESULTS: Blinded physician evaluation failed to show a difference in the overall cosmetic appearance of the eyelids between the control and treatment sides at any time point. Analysis of the composite of all patient scores showed a trend favoring the control side at 3 months (p = .28) and the treatment side at 17 months (p = .50), but neither difference was significant. CONCLUSION: Based on the data from this pilot study, orbicularis oculi muscle stripping appears to have no affect on the aesthetic outcome of upper lid blepharoplasty.

Concepts: Physician, Eyelid, Blepharoplasty, Orbicularis oculi muscle, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Orbicularis oris muscle


  It is well known that gradual loss of elastic fibers and skin relaxation cause the aging process, but whether changes in the orbicularis oculi muscle may contribute to the aging of the upper eyelid is not known. The aim of the present study was to use histopathologic examination to investigate whether the orbicularis oculi contributes to upper eyelid aging.

Concepts: Time, Orbicularis oculi muscle, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Orbicularis oris muscle