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Concept: Leiomyoma

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Purpose: Imaging features and clinical characteristics of degenerated leiomyoma in patients referred for uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) were analyzed to assess the incidence of degenerated leiomyoma. Materials and Methods: Patients referred for UFE between 2008 and 2009 were retrospectively analyzed (n=276). Patients ranged in age from 27 to 51 years (mean 38.0 years). All patients underwent screening MRI with contrast enhancement. Medical histories and clinical symptoms were evaluated. Results: Among the 276 patients who underwent MRI, 14 (5.1%) showed degenerated leiomyomas. Symptoms were abdominal pain (n=4, 26.7%), menorrhagia (n=5, 35.7%) and bulk-related symptoms (n=5, 35.7%) and no symptoms (n=5, 35.7%). Of the 14 patients with degenerated leiomyomas, 5 (42.9%) had a history of pregnancy in the past two years. For T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), a high signal intensity (SI) of the leiomyoma was the most common finding (n=9, 64.3%) and a hyperintense rim (n=4, 28.6%) was the second most common. On T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), a low SI of the leiomyoma was found in six patients (42.9%), a high SI in four (28.6%) and a heterogeneous SI in four (28.6%) patients. Conservative management was performed in 11 (78.6%) patients, surgery in 3 (21.4%) and uterine artery embolization in one (7.1%) patient. Conclusion: The incidence of degeneration of leiomyoma in patients referred for UFE was 5.1%. Patients presented with variable clinical symptoms with or without a history of pregnancy. MR imaging showed a high SI on T1WI and various SIs on T2WI without contrast enhancement. An understanding of the degeneration of leiomyomata is essential when considering UFE.

Concepts: Uterus, Anatomical pathology, Radiology, Gynecology, Uterine fibroids, Leiomyoma, Myometrium, Uterine artery embolization

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What is the risk of complications after uterine leiomyoma embolization and what are the factors associated with complications?

Concepts: Leiomyoma, Myometrium

24

Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids or myomas) are the most common pelvic tumor in women with about 70% lifetime incidence rate. Currently, the only definitive treatment is surgery, causing undesirable side effects and negative impact on women’s quality of life, reproductive ability, and a substantial impact on healthcare costs. Therefore, curative medical treatments are needed to be developed. In this study, we investigated the impact of serotonin receptor 5-HT1B on cell proliferation and survival in human uterine leiomyoma cells (huLM).

Concepts: Medicine, Signal transduction, Cell division, Serotonin, Leiomyoma, Myometrium, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1B receptor

24

Fibroids or myomas involve large proportion of women of reproductive age. The myoma formation starts from the transformation of the myometrium, causing the progressive formation of a pseudocapsule, which is made of compressed muscle fibers. Numerous studies investigated on myoma pseudocapsule anatomy, discovering many neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, as a neurovascular bundle, influencing myometrial physiology. These substances have a positive impact on wound healing and muscular restoring, also playing a role in sexual and reproductive function. Based on investigations, a distinct surgical technique evolved, called “intracapsular myomectomy”, meaning myoma removal from its pseudocapsule, which enables protection of the myoma pseudocapsule, containing neuropeptides and neurofibers involved in physiological myometrial healing. This technique, performed by a gentle myoma enucleating by stretching from myometrium and sparing pseudocapsule, reduces surgical trauma caused by iatrogenic myoma pseudocapsule damage. Intracapsular myomectomy meets the basic surgical anatomy principle: myoma is removed by a bloodless, precise and careful dissection sparing myometrium, as much as possible. The rationale of intracapsular myomectomy should be applied to all myoma removals; therefore, it has been used for both laparoscopic and laparotomic myomectomy, as well as for cesarean myomectomy. Scientific research is still seeks to clarify some reports of myomas with infertility, especially in the case of intramural myomas, but it is clear that in the case of performing myomectomy, it must do by the described intracapsular technique. This enables myometrial preservation, especially peripherally to myoma bed, promoting myometrial healing after myoma removal.

Concepts: Medicine, Wound healing, Uterus, Physiology, Surgery, Muscle, Leiomyoma, Myometrium

23

Background Uterine leiomyomas are benign but affect the health of millions of women. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved may provide clues to the prevention and treatment of these lesions. Methods We performed whole-genome sequencing and gene-expression profiling of 38 uterine leiomyomas and the corresponding myometrium from 30 women. Results Identical variants observed in some separate tumor nodules suggested that these nodules have a common origin. Complex chromosomal rearrangements resembling chromothripsis were a common feature of leiomyomas. These rearrangements are best explained by a single event of multiple chromosomal breaks and random reassembly. The rearrangements created tissue-specific changes consistent with a role in the initiation of leiomyoma, such as translocations of the HMGA2 and RAD51B loci and aberrations at the COL4A5-COL4A6 locus, and occurred in the presence of normal TP53 alleles. In some cases, separate events had occurred more than once in single tumor-cell lineages. Conclusions Chromosome shattering and reassembly resembling chromothripsis (a single genomic event that results in focal losses and rearrangements in multiple genomic regions) is a major cause of chromosomal abnormalities in uterine leiomyomas; we propose that tumorigenesis occurs when tissue-specific tumor-promoting changes are formed through these events. Chromothripsis has previously been associated with aggressive cancer; its common occurrence in leiomyomas suggests that it also has a role in the genesis and progression of benign tumors. We observed that multiple separate tumors could be seeded from a single lineage of uterine leiomyoma cells. (Funded by the Academy of Finland Center of Excellence program and others.).

Concepts: Gene, Cancer, Oncology, Anatomical pathology, Benign tumor, Tumor, Leiomyoma, Myometrium

20

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) syndrome secondary to germline fumarate hydratase (FH) mutation presents with cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas, and a distinctive aggressive renal carcinoma. Identification of HLRCC patients presenting first with uterine leiomyomas may allow early intervention for renal carcinoma. We reviewed the morphology and immunohistochemical (IHC) findings in patients with uterine leiomyomas and confirmed or presumed HLRCC. IHC was also performed on a tissue microarray of unselected uterine leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. FH-deficient leiomyomas underwent Sanger and massively parallel sequencing on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. All 5 patients with HLRCC had at least 1 FH-deficient leiomyoma: defined as completely negative FH staining with positive internal controls. One percent (12/1152) of unselected uterine leiomyomas but 0 of 88 leiomyosarcomas were FH deficient. FH-deficient leiomyoma patients were younger (42.7 vs. 48.8 y, P=0.024) and commonly demonstrated a distinctive hemangiopericytomatous vasculature. Other features reported to be associated with FH-deficient leiomyomas (hypercellularity, nuclear atypia, inclusion-like nucleoli, stromal edema) were inconstantly present. Somatic FH mutations were identified in 6 of 10 informative unselected FH-deficient leiomyomas. None of these mutations were found in the germline. We conclude that, while the great majority of patients with HLRCC will have FH-deficient leiomyomas, 1% of all uterine leiomyomas are FH deficient usually due to somatic inactivation. Although IHC screening for FH may have a role in confirming patients at high risk for hereditary disease before genetic testing, prospective identification of FH-deficient leiomyomas is of limited clinical benefit in screening unselected patients because of the relatively high incidence of somatic mutations.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

Concepts: Genetics, Cancer, Mutation, Renin, Renal cell carcinoma, Leiomyoma, Myometrium, Creative Commons

20

Power morcellation has become a common technique for the minimally invasive resection of uterine leiomyomas. This technique is associated with dissemination of cellular material throughout the peritoneum. When morcellated uterine tumors are unexpectedly found to be leiomyosarcomas or tumors with atypical features (atypical leiomyoma, smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential), there may be significant clinical consequences. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency and clinical consequence of intraperitoneal dissemination of these neoplasms.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Uterus, Anatomical pathology, Urinary bladder, Tumor, Smooth muscle, Leiomyoma

5

To characterize the impact of uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) in a racially diverse sample of women in the United States.

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Race, European American, Leiomyoma, Nationalism, Indigenous peoples of the Americas

3

The aim of the Female Pelvic Imaging Working Group of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) was to develop imaging guidelines for MR work-up in patients with known or suspected uterine leiomyomas.

Concepts: Uterus, Magnetic resonance imaging, The Europeans, Leiomyoma, Breed Groups

1

To assess efficacy and tolerability of ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, for treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomas.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Randomized controlled trial, Hormonal contraception, Progesterone, Leiomyoma, Ulipristal acetate, Selective progesterone receptor modulator, Progesterone receptor