SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Lecture

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The present study investigated what impact the presentation style of a classroom lecture has on memory, mind wandering, and the subjective factors of interest and motivation. We examined if having a professor lecturing live versus on video alters the learning experience of the students in the classroom. During the lectures, students were asked to report mind wandering and later complete a memory test. The lecture format was manipulated such that all the students received two lectures, one live and one a pre-recorded video. Results indicate that lecture format affected memory performance but not mind wandering, with enhanced memory in the live lectures. Additionally, students reported greater interest and motivation in the live lectures. Given that a single change to the classroom environment, professor presence, impacted memory performance, as well as motivation and interest, the present results have several key implications for technology-based integrations into higher education classrooms.

Concepts: Psychology, Education, Cognition, Educational psychology, University, Higher education, Lecture, Presentation

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Dental meetings are one of the most important resources for disseminating knowledge to dental practitioners. Therefore, the information provided in such meetings should be as unbiased as possible. This paper assessed whether major general dentistry and periodontology/implant dentistry meetings have guidelines for reporting scientific evidence in oral lectures and seminars. The homepages of seven dental meetings (EUROPERIO, AAP, EAO, AO, IADR, ADA, and FDI) were assessed to check for guidelines for presenting scientific data in oral lectures and seminars, according to defined criteria. Only three of these dental meetings reported information for presentations on their homepages, although these guidelines were related to technical issues rather than recommendations for the presentation of scientific data. The present paper suggests guidelines for reporting scientific evidence in oral lectures and seminars in dental meetings to improve the current standards of reporting. High standards of reporting may provide less biased information, which is necessary for dental practitioners and clinicians to make accurate judgements on the efficacy/effectiveness of therapies.

Concepts: Scientific method, Critical thinking, Data, Knowledge, Dentistry, Lecture, Presentation

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The Department of Dental Medicine of Lutheran Medical Center has developed an asynchronous online curriculum consisting of prerecorded PowerPoint presentations with audio explanations. The focus of this study was to evaluate if the new asynchronous format satisfied the educational needs of the residents compared to traditional lecture (face-to-face) and synchronous (distance learning) formats. Lectures were delivered to 219 dental residents employing face-to-face and synchronous formats, as well as the new asynchronous format; 169 (77 percent) participated in the study. Outcomes were assessed with pretests, posttests, and individual lecture surveys. Results found the residents preferred face-to-face and asynchronous formats to the synchronous format in terms of effectiveness and clarity of presentations. This preference was directly related to the residents' perception of how well the technology worked in each format. The residents also rated the quality of student-instructor and student-student interactions in the synchronous and asynchronous formats significantly higher after taking the lecture series than they did before taking it. However, they rated the face-to-face format as significantly more conducive to student-instructor and student-student interaction. While the study found technology had a major impact on the efficacy of this curricular model, the results suggest that the asynchronous format can be an effective way to teach a postgraduate course.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Efficacy, Preference, Utility, Lecture, Presentation, The Residents, Public lecture

6

In 2014, a global ‘Call to Action’ seminar for the scale-up of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy was held during the 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. This report summarizes the presentations and main discussion points from the meeting.

Concepts: Lecture, Tropical disease, Society of the United States

1

In higher education, student ratings are often used to evaluate and improve the quality of courses and professors' instructional skills. Unfortunately, student-rating questionnaires rarely generate specific feedback for professors to improve their instructional skills. The impact of student ratings on professors' instructional skills has proven to be low. This study concerns the psychometric properties of the Instructional Skills Questionnaire (ISQ), a new theory-based student-rating-of-teaching questionnaire with specific questions concerning lecturing skills. The ISQ is administered after a single lecture. This way, it serves as a formative feedback instrument for university professors during courses to assist them to improve and (re-) evaluate their skills if necessary. The ISQ contains seven dimensions of professors' instructional skills and three student (self perceived) learning outcomes. In this study, Dutch students in 75 courses rated three 90-minute lectures (T1, T2 and T3) of their respective professors using the ISQ. In total, 14,298 ISQ-forms were used to rate 225 lectures. The teacher level reliabilities of the seven dimensions were found to be good at each measurement occasion. In addition, confirmatory multilevel factor analysis confirmed a seven dimensional factor structure at the teacher level at each measurement occasion. Furthermore, specific teacher level factors significantly predicted students' (self-assessed) learning outcomes. These results partly supported the proposed theoretical framework on the relationship between the ISQ teaching dimensions and the student learning process, and provided evidence for the construct validity of the instrument. In sum, the ISQ is found to be a reliable and valid instrument, which can be used by professors and faculty development centers to assess and improve university teaching.

Concepts: Education, Educational psychology, Psychometrics, Factor analysis, Skill, University, Learning, Lecture

0

New instructional technologies have been increasingly incorporated into the medical school learning environment, including lecture video recordings as a substitute for live lecture attendance. The literature presents varying conclusions regarding how this alternative experience impacts students' academic success. Previously, a multi-year study of the first-year medical histology component at the University of Michigan found that live lecture attendance was positively correlated with learning success, while lecture video use was negatively correlated. Here, three cohorts of first-year medical students (N = 439 respondents, 86.6% response rate) were surveyed in greater detail regarding lecture attendance and video usage, focusing on study behaviors that may influence histology learning outcomes. Students who reported always attending lectures or viewing lecture videos had higher average histology scores than students who employed an inconsistent strategy (i.e., mixing live attendance and video lectures). Several behaviors were negatively associated with histology performance. Students who engaged in “non-lecture activities” (e.g., social media use), students who reported being interrupted while watching the lecture video, or feeling sleepy/losing focus had lower scores than their counterparts not engaging in these behaviors. This study suggests that interruptions and distractions during medical learning activities-whether live or recorded-can have an important impact on learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 00: 000-000. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

Concepts: Psychology, Medicine, Education, Educational psychology, Academia, Anatomy, Learning, Lecture

0

As has been well established, the Diabetes Care journal’s most visible signature event is the Diabetes Care Symposium held each year during the American Diabetes Association’s Scientific Sessions. Held this past year on 10 June 2017 in San Diego, California, at the 77th Scientific Sessions, this event has become one of the most attended sessions during the Scientific Sessions. Each year, in order to continue to have the symposium generate interest, we revise the format and content of this event. For this past year, our 6th annual symposium, I felt it was time to provide a comprehensive overview of our efforts in diabetes care to determine, first and foremost, how we arrived at our current state of management. I also felt the narrative needed to include the current status of management, especially with a focus toward cardiovascular disease, and finally, we wanted to ask what the future holds. Toward this goal, I asked four of the most noted experts in the world to provide their opinion on this topic. The symposium started with a very thoughtful presentation by Dr. Jay Skyler entitled “A Look Back as to How We Got Here.” That was followed by two lectures on current concepts by Dr. Bernard Zinman entitled “Current Treatment Paradigms Today-How Well Are We Doing?” and by Dr. Matthew Riddle entitled “Evolving Concepts and Future Directions for Cardiovascular Outcomes Trials.” The final lecture for the symposium was delivered by Dr. Ele Ferrannini and was entitled “What Does the Future Hold?” As always, a well-attended and well-received symposium is now the norm for our signature event and our efforts were rewarded by the enthusiasm of the attendees. This narrative summarizes the lectures held at the symposium.-William T. CefaluChief Scientific, Medical & Mission Officer, American Diabetes Association.

Concepts: Present, Time, Future, Gestational diabetes, American Diabetes Association, The Current, Past, Lecture

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Challenge: Although lecturing is an efficient method for the dissemination of information, it has long been criticized for learner passivity and diminished knowledge retention. Active learning strategies to engage the audience in the learning process can facilitate a bidirectional flow of ideas and content between teacher and students during a lecture to keep learners engaged and participating.

Concepts: Psychology, Education, Educational psychology, Learning, Knowledge, Lecture, History of education, Teaching

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The experimental study was undertaken to examine the effect of emotionalized learning experiences on the academic achievement of students at Preston University. The major objectives of the study were to identify the effect of teaching methods on students' academic achievement and to evaluate the relationship between affective learning conditions and students' academic achievement. Based on four intact semesters, the population of the study comprised 140 students from the Bachelors of Business Administration Program. The whole population was considered as the sample. The control group (28 students) was taught through the interactive lecture method, whereas, the experimental group 1 (35 students), experimental group 2 (46 students) and experimental group 3 (31 students) were taught through the activity method, reflective learning method and cooperative learning method respectively. Results indicated a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores obtained in the achievement test as a result of the effect of teaching methods used for offering the emotionalized learning experiences. There was also a significant relationship between affective leaning conditions and students' academic achievement. Furthermore, it was found that students' academic achievement in the affective domain was highest with regard to workshops 1, 2 and 3. It was concluded that the emotionalized learning experiences offered to the students via the four teaching methods helped students in enhancing their knowledge, changing their attitudes and developing their skills with regard to living a happy, healthy and meaningful life. However, the reflective learning method proved to be the most suitable followed by the interactive lecture method, the cooperative learning method and the activity method.

Concepts: Education, Touring car racing, Empiricism, Learning, Knowledge, Lecture, Pedagogy, Teaching

0

PowerPoint software (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) has become a popular tool for creating and displaying electronic presentations. The “hyperlink” function in PowerPoint allows users to advance from one slide to another slide in the presentation when they click on a predetermined word, shape, or image, thereby allowing for a more dynamic and interactive experience than can be obtained with serial presentation of slides alone. The objective of this article is to provide a tutorial describing the necessary steps to create hyperlinks and incorporate them in a variety of ways into a PowerPoint presentation. Hyperlinks can turn a passive learning experience into an active one by allowing the participant to become more engaged with the presentation.

Concepts: Lecture, Microsoft, Presentation, Microsoft PowerPoint, Presentation program, Microsoft Office