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Concept: Leader

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We study a neuro-inspired model that mimics a discussion (or information dissemination) process in a network of agents. During their interaction, agents redistribute activity and network weights, resulting in emergence of leader(s). The model is able to reproduce the basic scenarios of leadership known in nature and society: laissez-faire (irregular activity, weak leadership, sizable inter-follower interaction, autonomous sub-leaders); participative or democratic (strong leadership, but with feedback from followers); and autocratic (no feedback, one-way influence). Several pertinent aspects of these scenarios are found as well-e.g., hidden leadership (a hidden clique of agents driving the official autocratic leader), and successive leadership (two leaders influence followers by turns). We study how these scenarios emerge from inter-agent dynamics and how they depend on behavior rules of agents-in particular, on their inertia against state changes.

Concepts: Leader, Political philosophy, Sociology, Social influence, Management, Emergence, Leadership, Interaction

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Leadership research has been encumbered by a proliferation of constructs and measures, despite little evidence that each is sufficiently conceptually and operationally distinct from the others. We draw from research on subordinates' implicit theories of leader behavior, behaviorally anchored rating scales, and decision making to argue that leader affect (i.e., the degree to which subordinates have positive and negative feelings about their supervisors) underlies the common variance shared by many leadership measures. To explore this possibility, we developed and validated measures of positive and negative leader affect (i.e., the Leader Affect Questionnaires; LAQs). We conducted 10 studies to develop the five-item positive and negative LAQs and to examine their convergent, discriminant, predictive, and criterion-related validity. We conclude that a) the LAQs provide highly reliable and valid tools for assessing subordinates' evaluations of their leaders; b) there is significant overlap between existing leadership measures, and a large proportion of this overlap is a function of the affect captured by the LAQs; c) when the LAQs are used as control variables, in most cases, they reduce the strength of relationships between leadership measures and other variables; d) the LAQs account for significant variance in outcomes beyond that explained by other leadership measures; and e) there is a considerable amount of unexplained variance between leadership measures that the LAQs do not capture. Research suggestions are provided and the implications of our results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Political philosophy, Leader, Validity, Decision making, Hierarchy, Scientific method, Management, Leadership

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This article describes the inception and evolution of a 3-month immersion experience between hospital and nurse leaders where sociological principles were applied to support nurse leader succession. Unique to this program, the bedside nurse joins the nursing executive team full time to participate in all organizational leadership activities as part of the experience.

Concepts: Fiedler contingency model, Leader, Leadership, Management, Sociology

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Voice is an important way that members contribute to effective team functioning. And yet, the existing literature provides divergent guidance as to how leaders can promote member voice in action teams-a dynamic team context where eliciting voice may be difficult, due to different task demands encountered in the preparation and action phases of task performance, among members who may have little history of working together. Drawing on the employee voice and team leadership literatures, we focus on three leader behaviors-directing, coaching, and supporting-and employ a functional leadership perspective to assess whether certain leader behaviors enhance voice in one phase of the performance episode versus the other. We also assess whether these leadership-voice relationships are further contingent on team members' prior familiarity with one another. Observation and survey data from 105 surgical team episodes revealed that leader directing promoted voice in both the preparation and action phases. Coaching also facilitated voice in both phases, especially in the action phase for more familiar teams. Surprisingly, supporting did not enhance voice in either phase, and in fact exhibited negative effects on voice in the preparation phase of more familiar teams. Theoretical and practical implications around how leaders can elicit voice in action teams are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Leader, Test, Fiedler contingency model, Hero, Management, Coaching, Team, Leadership

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Aim This article reports the results of a study that gives an insight into ward leaders' perspectives of their leadership role and explores how they deliver leadership at ward level within organisational constraints and processes. Previous studies have been evaluations of clinical leadership in general, or literature reviews of the ward leader role. The aim of this study was to examine the leadership role of ward sisters and to understand how they lead improvements in quality of care on their wards. Methods A qualitative methodology was used, incorporating 19 in-depth interviews with ward leaders and modern matrons. Results Three main themes were identified: empty conformity, authority and autonomy, and visibility and leading by example. Participants aimed to be role models in leading and maintaining standards of care for patients, but this was sometimes constrained by organisational processes, lack of authority and autonomy, and lack of support and preparation. Conclusion Perceived differences between nursing and health service management mean that ward leaders' efforts to lead improvements in quality care are often undermined. Ward leaders must strike a balance between leading high-quality nursing care, in the context of organisational and political performance requirements, and the demands of administrative work, while often lacking autonomy and authority.

Concepts: Fiedler contingency model, Strategic management, Leader, Hero, Charismatic authority, Health care, Leadership, Management

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To suggest a methodical approach for refining transitional management abilities, including empowerment of a growing leader, leading in an unfamiliar organization or leading in an organization that is changing.

Concepts: Leader, Fiedler contingency model, Strategic management, Leadership, Management

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Increasing attention is being paid to the question of why some people emerge as leaders, and we investigated the effects of persistent exposure to poverty during childhood on later leadership role occupancy. We hypothesized that exposure to poverty would limit later leadership role occupancy through the indirect effects of the quality of schooling and personal mastery, and that gender would moderate the effects of exposure to poverty and personal mastery. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth provided multiwave and multisource data for a sample of 4,536 (1,533 leaders; 3,003 nonleaders). Both school quality and personal mastery mediated the effects of family poverty status on later leadership role occupancy. Although gender did not moderate the effects of poverty on leadership role occupancy, the indirect effects of early exposure to poverty on leadership role occupancy through personal mastery were moderated by gender. Conceptual and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Fiedler contingency model, Matriarchy, Leader, Management, Hero, Emergence, Leadership, Sociology

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This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: All rights reversed, Organizational studies and human resource management, Leader, Ethical leadership, Criterion validity, All rights reserved, Management, Leadership

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The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.

Concepts: Fiedler contingency model, Military, Leader, Positive psychology, Management, Skill, Psychology, Leadership

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Background: Effective leaders understand that loyal followers are the key for success. To win their loyalty, leaders usually build social exchange relationships with them, through a wide range of behaviours, such as honouring agreements or using open and transparent communication. However, the effect of these behaviours on their followers' loyalty can differ depending on followers' individual differences, especially in relational traits such as agreeableness and extraversion. Method: We explored the moderating role of followers' agreeableness and extraversion in the relationship between authentic leadership (using transactional leadership as reference group) and followers' loyalty. A two-wave experiment, where 224 participants with and without work experience were randomly assigned to either a transactional or authentic leadership style condition was conducted. Results: Our results show that followers in the authentic leadership condition had higher levels of loyalty toward their leader. Moreover, followers' agreeableness played a negative moderating role in this relationship whereas extraversion played a positive moderating role in it. Conclusions: Our results indicate that followers' characteristics influence the effect of situational factors on their attitudes, such as loyalty, providing support for the need of a more integrative approach to leadership, where followers need to be considered as active elements of this process ofinfluence.

Concepts: Management, Leader, Social influence, Hero, Transactional leadership, Situational leadership theory, Sociology, Leadership