SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Lazio

187

The evidence on the health effects related to residing close to landfills is controversial. Nine landfills for municipal waste have been operating in the Lazio region (Central Italy) for several decades. We evaluated the potential health effects associated with contamination from landfills using the estimated concentration of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as exposure.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Demography, Pollution, Hydrogen sulfide, Rome, Lazio, Marche, Umbria

27

A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of anisakid nematode larvae in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) fished off the Tyrrhenian coast of central Italy. From February through July 2012, 1,490 specimens of E. encrasicolus caught in three different fishing areas (off Civitavecchia, Anzio, and Gaeta in the northern, central, and southern Lazio region of Italy, respectively) were tested for the presence of anisakid larvae, both by visual microscopic inspection and enzymatic digestion. In each of the three fishing areas, each of two sampling times produced 250 fish (with the exception of one sampling time in Gaeta that produced 240 fish). Larvae of the family Anisakidae were detected with an overall estimated prevalence of 2.3%, and each positive fish harbored a single larva. No anisakid larvae were detected in fish caught off Gaeta. Fish with larvae were significantly longer (standard length) than fish without larvae. Twenty-six larvae (74.3%) were detected by visual inspection of the viscera, eight larvae (22.8%) were detected by visual inspection of the fillets, and one larva (2.8%) was detected after digestion of pooled fillets. Molecular analysis to fully characterize the 35 detected larvae revealed 15 specimens of Anisakis pegreffii, 10 specimens of Hysterothylacium aduncum, and one hybrid genotype of A. pegreffii × Anisakis simplex. For nine specimens, no visible product was obtained after PCR amplification. The overall prevalence for A. pegreffii and H. aduncum was 1.0 and 0.7%, respectively. A comparison between fishes harboring A. pegreffii larvae and those harboring H. aduncum revealed that those with A. pegreffii were significantly heavier. The prevalence of anisakid larvae found in the present study is lower then that reported previously in E. encrasicolus collected in the Mediterranean Sea.

Concepts: Fish, Mediterranean Sea, Italy, Sicily, Tyrrhenian Sea, Anisakis, Lazio, European anchovy

4

In the second half of the 19th century Pleistocene faunas were discovered in two sites, Sedia del Diavolo and Monte delle Gioie, contained in deposits of the Aniene River in the area of Rome (Latium, Italy). Fieldwork by A.C. Blanc in the late 1930’s proved the association of fauna and lithic industry within fluvial deposits interbedded with volcanoclastic layers. A human femoral diaphysis and a metatarsal were later identified in the faunal assemblage from Sedia del Diavolo and evaluated as Neandertal. The lithic assemblages from these two sites were the basis of the definition of the Protopontinian by M. Taschini, which she viewed as a late Middle Pleistocene industry very similar to the later, Upper Pleistocene Pontinian industries, thought to be characteristic of the Latium Mousterian. The chronostratigraphic framework of the Aniene river deposits has been recently updated and the lithic assemblages from these two sites are now confidently dated between 295 and 290 ka, close to the transition from MIS 9 to MIS 8. They fit chronologically between the industries of layers m and d from Torre in Pietra, a site 26 km northwest of Rome. The presence of the Levallois debitage is indisputable yet it occurs within an original technical context, different from what is known in other early occurrences of the Levallois. The date confirms the proposed chronology for the early Levallois in Europe. More importantly these two assemblages demonstrate that this technology can emerge in more diversified contexts than usually described. This suggests that its dispersal in Europe may have been rapid.

Concepts: Human, Neanderthal, Pleistocene, Paleolithic, 19th century, Rome, Mousterian, Lazio

0

Rickettsia helvetica is an emerging human pathogen, belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, associated with generally aneruptive fever, meningitis, and sudden death in chronic perimyocarditis. In this study, we describe the detection of R. helvetica in human-parasitizing and free-living Ixodes ricinus from the Metropolitan City of Rome. The pathogen was found in a tick acquired by a woman in an urban park. The circulation of R. helvetica was further confirmed by its detection in free-living ticks from a wild green area. These findings demonstrate that urban as well as wild green areas can represent a risk of infection to humans by R. helvetica, with potentially severe sequelae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of R. helvetica in the Lazio region. Large-scale studies are needed to evaluate and quantify the presence of R. helvetica and other SFG rickettsiae in the urban and periurban context and to assess the risk to humans and animals related to their frequentation.

Concepts: City, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Italy, Naples, Campania, Rome, Lazio

0

Inequalities in health among groups of various socio-economic status (as measured by education, occupation, and income) constitute one of the main challenges for public health. Since 2006, the Lazio Regional Outcome Evaluation Program (P.Re.Val.E.), presents a set of indicators of hospital performance based on quality standards driven by strong clinical recommendations, and measures the variation in the access to effective health care for different population groups and providers in the Lazio Region. One of the aims of the program was to compare population subgroups in order to promote equity in service provision. Since June 2013, a new management strategy has been put in place that assigned specific goals based on performance assessment to the chief executive officers of the hospitals.

Concepts: Health care, Clinical trial, Management, Italy, Corporate governance, Executive officer, Chief executive officer, Lazio

0

Real-time monitoring is used to the ends of postmarketing observational research on newly marketed drugs. We implemented a pilot near-real-time monitoring program on the test case of oral anticoagulants. Specifically, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of direct oral anticoagulants compared to vitamin K antagonists in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation secondary prevention during 2013-2015 in the Lazio Region, Italy.

Concepts: Atrial fibrillation, Warfarin, Anticoagulant, Heparin, Dabigatran, Italy, Rome, Lazio

0

Orthopoxviruses spill over from animal reservoirs to accidental hosts, sometimes causing human infections. We describe the surveillance and infection control measures undertaken during an outbreak due to an Orthopoxvirus occurred in January 2015 in a colony of Macaca tonkeana in the province of Rieti, Latio, Italy, which caused a human asymptomatic infection. According to the epidemiological investigation, the human transmission occurred after an unprotected exposure. The contacts among wild, captive and domestic animals and humans, together with decreased immunity against Orthopoxviruses in the community, may put animal handlers at risk of infection, especially after the cessation of smallpox vaccination. To reduce these threats, standard precautions including respiratory hygiene and transmission-based precautions should be carefully applied also in veterinary medicine.

Concepts: Immune system, Epidemiology, Disease, Infectious disease, Smallpox, Lazio, Province of Rieti, Rieti

0

Limited data are available on the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in central Italy. The objective of this study is to estimate MS prevalence in the metropolitan area of Rome.

Concepts: European Union, Multiple sclerosis, Metropolitan area, Lazio, Marseille, Larger Urban Zones, Milan metropolitan area

0

The aims of the study were to evaluate satisfaction with the mammography service of the Local Health Unit RMA (Rome, Lazio Region) among women who have attended the program and to identify the predictors of participation.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Estrogen, Breast, Mammography, Rome, Lazio

0

We report here the genome sequence of a human chikungunya virus isolate from the ongoing autochthonous outbreak in central Italy. The sequence (East-Central-South African lineage, Indian Ocean sublineage), which is similar to recent sequences from Pakistan and India, shows E1 and E2 signatures of strains whose main mosquito vector is Aedes aegypti, although Aedes albopictus is the vector in Italy.

Concepts: Africa, Mosquito, India, Indian Ocean, Aedes aegypti, South Asia, Rome, Lazio