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Concept: Lateral internal sphincterotomy

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Idiopathic chronic anal fissure is believed to be a consequence of a traumatic acute anodermal tear followed by recurrent inflammation and poor healing due to relative tissue ischaemia secondary to internal sphincter spasm. This pilot trial compared the efficacy of a novel manufactured ano-coccygeal support attached to a standard toilet seat (Colorec) to the standard procedure of lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) for chronic anal fissure.

Concepts: Medical terms, Fecal incontinence, Anal fissure, Lateral internal sphincterotomy

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AIM: An evaluation was performed of the one-year outcome of open haemorrhoidectomy (Milligan-Morgan alone or with posterior mucosal anoplasty [Leopold Bellan procedure]). METHOD: A prospective, multicentre, observational study included all patients having a planned haemorrhoidectomy from January 2007 of June 2008. Data were collected before surgery, at three months and one year after surgery. Patients assessed their anal symptoms and quality of life (SF-36). RESULTS: 633 patients (median age 48 years, 56.5% female) underwent haemorrhoidectomy including Milligan-Morgan alone (n=231, 36.5%) or the Leopold Bellan procedure (posterior mucosal anoplasty) for resection of a fourth haemorrhoid (n=345, 54.5%), anal fissure (n=56, 8.9%) or low anal fistula (n=1, 0.16%). Median healing time was 6 weeks. Early complications included urinary retention (n=3), bleeding (n=11), local infection (n=7) and faecal impaction (n=9). At one year, main complications included skin tags (n=2) and anal stenosis (n=23). There were three recurrences requiring a second haemorrhoidectomy. On a visual analogue scale, anal pain at one year had fallen from a median of 5.5/10 before treatment to 0.1/10 (p<0.001), anal discomfort from 5.5/10 to 0.1/10 (p<0.001) and the KESS constipation score from 9/45 to 6/45 (p<0.001). The median Wexner score for anal incontinence was unchanged (2/20). De novo anal incontinence (Wexner >5) affected 8.5% of patients at one year, but preoperative incontinence disappeared in 16.7% of patients with this symptom. All physical and mental domains of quality of life significantly improved and 88% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied. CONCLUSION: Complications of open haemorrhoidectomy were infrequent. Anal continence was not altered. Comfort and well-being were significantly improved at one year after surgery. Patient satisfaction was high despite residual anal symptoms. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

Concepts: Surgery, Gastroenterology, Dietary fiber, Fecal incontinence, Hemorrhoid, Anal fissure, Lateral internal sphincterotomy, Proctology

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The objective of this article is to provide an informative and narrative review for the general Gynaecologist regarding the pathophysiology and conservative treatments available for faecal incontinence (FI). A PubMed search was performed by library staff and an author using the keywords: anal incontinence, faecal incontinence, accidental bowel leakage, outpatient clinic management of faecal incontinence and defecatory dysfunction. As the social limitations of FI can be devastating and long-term patient satisfaction rates after anal sphincteroplasty remain reportedly-low, the role of clinic-based management of FI has continued to grow. The purpose of this article is to provide the Obstetrician and Gynaecologist with a basic template for screening, evaluation and management of faecal incontinence in the clinical setting.

Concepts: Hospital, Gastroenterology, Fecal incontinence, Defecation, PubMed, Hemorrhoid, Anal fissure, Lateral internal sphincterotomy

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Fecal incontinence (FI) is the involuntary passage of fecal material. Current treatments have limited successful outcomes. The objective of this study was to develop a large animal model of passive FI and to demonstrate sustained restoration of fecal continence using anorectal manometry in this model after implantation of engineered autologous internal anal sphincter (IAS) biosphincters. Twenty female rabbits were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups: (a) Non-treated group: Rabbits underwent IAS injury by hemi-sphincterectomy without treatment. (b) Treated group: Rabbits underwent IAS injury by hemi-sphincterectomy followed by implantation of autologous biosphincters. © Sham group: Rabbits underwent IAS injury by hemi-sphincterectomy followed by re-accessing the surgical site followed by immediate closure without implantation of biosphincters. Anorectal manometry was used to measure resting anal pressure and recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) at baseline, 1 month post-sphincterectomy, up to 3 months after implantation and post-sham. Following sphincterectomy, all rabbits had decreased basal tone and loss of RAIR, indicative of FI. Anal hygiene was also lost in the rabbits. Decreases in basal tone and RAIR were sustained more than 3 months in the non-treated group. Autologous biosphincters were successfully implanted into eight donor rabbits in the treated group. Basal tone and RAIR were restored at 3 months following biosphincter implantation and were significantly higher compared to rabbits in the non-treated and sham groups. Histologically, smooth muscle reconstruction and continuity was restored in the treated group compared to the non-treated group. Results in this study provided promising outcomes for treatment of FI. Results demonstrated the feasibility of developing and validating a large animal model of passive FI. This study also showed the efficacy of the engineered biosphincters to restore fecal continence as demonstrated by manometry. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

Concepts: Mathematics, Coprophagia, Feces, Fecal incontinence, Defecation, Sphincter, Lateral internal sphincterotomy, Anus

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Surgeons often approach anal fissure with chemical denervation (Botulinum toxin, BT) instead of initial lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) due to concerns for long-term incontinence. We evaluated the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received BT or LIS.

Concepts: Botulinum toxin, Anal fissure, Lateral internal sphincterotomy

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Anal fissures are a common problem and have a cumulative lifetime incidence of 11%. Previous reviews on anal fissures show inconsistent results regarding post-interventional healing and incontinence rates. In this review our aim was to compare the treatments for chronic anal fissures by incorporating indirect comparisons using network meta-analysis. The PubMed database was searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1975 and 2015. The primary outcome measures were healing and incontinence rates after lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS), anal dilatation (DILA), anoplasty and/or fissurectomy (FIAP), botulinum toxin (BT) and noninvasive treatment (NIT). Random effects network meta-analyses were complemented by fixed effects and Bayesian models. The present analysis included 44 RCTs and 3268 patients. After a median follow-up of 2 months, the healing rates for LIS, DILA, FIAP, BT and NIT were 93.1, 84.4, 79.8, 62.6, and 58.6% and the incontinence rates were 9.4, 18.2, 4.9, 4.1, and 3.0%, respectively. Compared with NIT, the odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for healing after LIS, DILA, FIAP and BT was 9.9 (5.4-18.1), 8.6 (3.1-24.0), 3.5 (1.0-12.7) and 1.9 (1.1-3.5), respectively, on network meta-analysis. The OR (95% CI) for incontinence after LIS, DILA, FIAP and BT was 6.8 (3.1-15.1), 16.9 (6.0-47.8), 3.9 (1.0-15.1) and 1.6 (0.7-3.7), respectively. Ranking of treatments, fixed effects and Bayesian models confirmed these findings. In conclusion, based on our meta-analysis LIS is the most efficacious treatment but is compromised by a high rate of postoperative incontinence. Given the trade-offs between the risks and benefits, FIAP and BT might be good alternatives for the treatment of chronic anal fissures.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Fecal incontinence, Botulinum toxin, Anal fissure, Lateral internal sphincterotomy

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The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between anal penetrative intercourse (API) and pelvic floor symptoms, specifically, anal incontinence (AI).

Concepts: Pelvis, Fecal incontinence, Defecation, Hemorrhoid, Anal fissure, Lateral internal sphincterotomy, Rectocele

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Anal fissure are defined as a tear in the skin of the anal canal distal to dentate line. Although still there are controversies about the exact management, lateral sphincterotomy is promising. The aim of this series is to present the outcome of lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter in term of patient satisfaction and complication.

Concepts: Fecal incontinence, Sphincter, Botulinum toxin, Hemorrhoid, Anal fissure, Lateral internal sphincterotomy

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Women with an obstetric anal sphincter injury are concerned about the risk of recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury in their second pregnancy. Existing studies have failed to clarify whether recurrence of obstetric anal sphincter injury affects the risk of anal- and fecal incontinence at long term follow up.

Concepts: Childbirth, Surgery, Fecal incontinence, Defecation, Hemorrhoid, Anal fissure, Lateral internal sphincterotomy, Anus

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Primary internal anal sphincter degeneration was first described in 1997 by Vaizey et al. as a cause of passive faecal incontinence (FI), and was diagnosed in 3.5% of the patients with FI [1]. It was defined as the presence of thin and hyperechogenic internal anal sphincter (IAS), intact anal sphincters, passive FI, and low anal pressure at rest. In addition, external anal sphincter (EAS) was structural and functionally normal, neurological dysfunction and all other possible causes of FI were excluded. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Quantum mechanics, Medical terms, All rights reserved, Sphincter, Copyright, Lateral internal sphincterotomy, Anus, Sphincter ani externus muscle