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Concept: Late effect


BACKGROUND: Formic acid (FA), a common industrial compound, is used in the coagulation of rubber latex in Kerala, a state in southwestern India. Easy accessibility to FA in this region makes it available to be used for deliberate self-harm. However, the literature on intentional poisoning with FA is limited. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the patterns of presentation of patients with intentional ingestion of FA and to find the predictors of mortality. A secondary objective was to find the prevalence and predictors of long-term sequelae related to the event. METHODS: We performed a 2-year chart review of patients with acute intentional ingestion of FA. Symptoms, signs, outcomes and complications were recorded, and patients who survived the attempt were followed-up by telephone or personal interview to identify any complications after their discharge from the hospital. RESULTS: A total of 302 patients with acute formic acid ingestion were identified during the study period. The mortality rate was 35.4% (n = 107). Bowel perforation (n = 39), shock (n = 73), and tracheoesophageal fistula (n = 4) were associated with 100% mortality. Quantity of FA consumed (p < 0.001), consuming undiluted FA (p < 0.001), presenting symptoms of hypotension (p < 0.001), respiratory distress (p < 0.001), severe degree of burns (p = 0.020), hematemesis (p = 0.024), complications like metabolic acidosis (p < 0.001) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (p < 0.001) were found to have significant association with mortality. The prevalence of esophageal stricture (n = 98) was 50.2% among survivors and was the most common long-term sequela among the survivors. Stricture was significantly associated with hematemesis (p < 0.001) and melena (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study highlights the magnitude and ill-effects of self-harm caused by a strong corrosive, readily available due to very few restrictions in its distribution. Easy availability of FA needs to be curtailed by enforcing statutory limitations in this part of the world. Patients with hematemesis or melena after FA ingestion may be referred for early dilatation therapy in a setting where emergency endoscopic evaluation of all injured patients is not practical.

Concepts: Medical terms, Medical statistics, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Shock, Sequela, Late effect, South India, Methanol


Many childhood cancer survivors are disengaged from cancer-related follow-up care despite being at high risk of treatment-related late effects. Innovative models of long-term follow-up (LTFU) care to manage ongoing treatment-related complications are needed. ’Re-engage' is a nurse-led eHealth intervention designed to improve survivors' health-related self-efficacy, targeted at survivors disengaged from follow-up. Re-engage aims to overcome survivor- and parent-reported barriers to care and ensure survivors receive the care most appropriate to their risk level.

Concepts: Time, Cancer, Sequela, Late effect, Survivors, Survivor: Cook Islands


Liposuction is a procedure commonly performed in the UK usually with a low incidence of serious sequelae; however with larger patients and increased volumes of lipoaspirate, complications have been reported more frequently. One of the rare but very serious complications postliposuction is fat embolism syndrome (FES), a life-threatening condition difficult to diagnose and limited in treatment.The authors present the case of a 45-year-old woman who was admitted to the intensive care unit postelective liposuction for bilateral leg lipoedema. She presented with the triad of respiratory failure, cerebral dysfunction and petechial rash requiring a brief period of organ support. This case highlights that with the recent increase in liposuction procedures worldwide, FES is a differential to always consider. Although still a rare condition this article emphasises the importance of thinking outside the box and how to identify and manage such a life-threatening complication.

Concepts: Medical terms, Intensive care medicine, Sequela, Late effect, Differential geometry, Triad, Fat embolism, Differential topology


Background and purpose - Increasing numbers of shoulder arthroplasty are performed internationally. The predictors of intraoperative complications when implanting primary shoulder replacements are unknown. We determined the incidence of intraoperative complications during primary shoulder arthroplasty using the National Joint Registry of England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man (NJR), and analyzed the associated risk factors for complications. Patients and methods - NJR data on primary shoulder arthroplasty were scrutinized for intraoperative complications. 2 analyses were performed: the first examined the incidence and predictors of any recorded complication; the second examined the incidence and predictors for intraoperative fractures specifically. Analysis of risk factors was performed using multivariable binary logistic regression modeling. Results - 12,559 primary shoulder arthroplasties were recorded, with an intraoperative complication rate of 2.5%, the majority being fractures (1.6% overall). The incidence of all complications was lower in men (RR vs. women =0.63 (95% CI 0.47-0.84)). Patients undergoing surgery for avascular necrosis (RR =2.3 (1.3-4.2)) or trauma sequelae (RR =1.6 (1.2-2.7)) had a higher risk of complications compared with OA. Patients undergoing a stemmed hemiarthroplasty (RR =1.8 (1.2-2.5)) and reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RR 1.6 (1.1-2.5)) had a higher risk of complications compared with total shoulder arthroplasty. The incidence of all complications was less in patients undergoing resurfacing arthroplasty (vs. total shoulder arthroplasty (RR 0.42 (0.24-0.73)) and when performing the superior approach (vs. deltopectoral (RR 0.56 (0.39-0.80)). Interpretation - This is the first study to use a national data set to examine risk factors for intraoperative complications during all types of primary shoulder arthroplasty, and identifies several previously unrecognized risk factors, such as surgical approach.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Avascular necrosis, Sequela, Late effect, Order theory, Complication, Isle of Man


Background Long-term Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are known to have diminished quality of life (QoL). However, limited data are available on temporal changes in QoL and factors associated with the changes. Methods In 2010, we conducted a follow-up questionnaire study on 273 HL survivors who participated in a 2003 questionnaire study on late effects after HL. The questionnaire items were limited to new late complications and reassessment of QoL and fatigue level, using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue instruments, respectively. We compared the results from the 2003 and the 2010 questionnaires, and QoL score changes between survivors with and without new late complications during the 7-year period. Results There was a significant decline in the SF-36 Physical Component Summary score (median change, -1.8; P < 0.0001) over the time period. The decline was significantly greater among survivors with a new cardiac (P = 0.005) or pulmonary (P < 0.0001) complication, compared with those without any new complications. The survivors reporting new cardiac complications also experienced significantly greater worsening of fatigue scores (P = 0.004). Conclusion The significant association between the development of new cardiopulmonary complications and decline in QoL and energy level of HL survivors provides further support for current efforts to reduce treatment to limit late effects.

Concepts: Evaluation, Quality, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Sequela, Late effect, Periodization, Survivors, The Changes


Fractures of the tibial spine are estimated to occur in 3 per 100,000 children annually, but account for 2 to 5% of pediatric knee injuries with effusion. Although these fractures were historically associated with bicycle accidents, the surge of organized youth sports in recent decades has brought renewed attention to this injury. While minimally displaced fractures can be treated nonoperatively, several techniques have been described for fixation of displaced or comminuted fractures. Sequelae of this injury can include arthrofibrosis, knee instability, and nonunion. Future collaborative endeavors will aim to further identify risk factors for these complications to optimize the treatment of tibial spine fractures in children.

Concepts: Bone fracture, Management, Injuries, Injury, Sequela, Late effect, Accident, Iraq War troop surge of 2007


The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to review urological complication rates arising from familial adenomatous polyposis associated desmoid tumours and their management. All patients over a 35-year period were identified from a prospectively maintained polyposis registry database and had an intra-abdominal desmoid tumour. Those without ureteric complications (n = 118, group A) were compared to those that developed ureteric obstruction (n = 40, group B) for demographics, treatment interventions and survival outcomes. 158 (56% female) patients were identified. Median age at diagnosis was 31 years and desmoids typically occurred 3.6 years after colectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis. Ureteric obstruction secondary to tumour growth occurred in 25% of cases. There was no significant difference in gender distribution or overall age at desmoid diagnosis between the two groups. In group B, the median age at desmoid diagnosis was significantly younger in women compared to men (25 and 43 years, respectively) (p = 0.01). Thirty-eight percent of patients already had ureteric obstruction at desmoid diagnosis, the remainder occurred after 48.6 months, but 20 years in two cases. Seventy-three percent (29/40) had ureteric stenting, a long-term requirement for most. Permanent renal injury occurred in six cases but survival between the two groups was not significantly different. Ureteric obstruction occurs frequently in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and an intra-abdominal desmoid tumour. Those most at risk are the young following colectomy. Clinicians should actively survey the renal tract at regular intervals after a diagnosis of an intra-abdominal desmoid tumour as complications can arise insidiously, at any stage.

Concepts: Cohort study, Oncology, Medical terms, Ureter, Sequela, Late effect, Familial adenomatous polyposis, Nontotient


Objective To characterize patterns of secondary complications after inpatient head and neck surgery. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2005-2015). Subjects and Methods We identified 18,584 patients who underwent inpatient otolaryngologic surgery. Four index complications were studied: pneumonia, bleeding or transfusion event (BTE), deep/organ space surgical site infection (SSI), and myocardial infarction (MI). Each patient with an index complication was matched to a control patient based on propensity for the index event and event-free days. Rates of 30-day secondary complications and mortality were compared. Results Index pneumonia (n = 254) was associated with several complications, including reintubation (odds ratio [OR], 11.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2-26.4), sepsis (OR, 8.8; 95% CI, 4.5-17.2), and death (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.9-14.9). Index MI (n = 50) was associated with increased odds of reintubation (OR, 17.2; 95% CI, 3.5-84.1), ventilatory failure (OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.8-19.1), and death (OR, 24.8; 95% CI, 2.9-211.4). Index deep/organ space SSI (n = 271) was associated with dehiscence (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 3.6-14.2) and sepsis (OR, 38.3; 95% CI, 11.6-126.4). Index BTE (n = 1009) increased the odds of cardiac arrest (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.8-8.5) and death (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.1). Conclusions Our study is the first to quantify the effect of index complications on the risk of specific secondary complications following inpatient head and neck surgery. These associations may be used to identify patients most at risk postoperatively and target specific interventions aimed to prevent or interrupt further complications.

Concepts: Cohort study, Head and neck anatomy, Myocardial infarction, Hospital, Cardiac arrest, Cultural studies, Sequela, Late effect


Urinary dysfunction is a common complaint following spinal cord injury (SCI), and is a leading issue for individuals with SCI that impacts their quality of life. One urinary complication that has received little attention is SCI-induced polyuria, even though SCI individuals will significantly restrict their fluid intake to decrease urine production leading to a sequelae of medical complications. Understanding the mechanisms instigating the development of polyuria will allow us to target interventions which may alleviate polyuria symptoms leading to significant improvements in the quality of life and urinary health of SCI individuals. In a rat SCI contusion model, an increase in the amount of urine excreted over a 24 hour period (p ≤ 0.001) was found at two weeks post-injury. The urine excreted was more dilute with decreased urinary creatinine and specific gravity (p ≤ 0.001). Several factors important in fluid balance regulation - vasopressin (AVP), natriuretic peptides, and corticosterone (CORT) also changed significantly post-injury. AVP levels decreased (p = 0.042) while atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and CORT increased (p = 0.005; p = 0.031, respectively) at two weeks post-injury. There was also a positive correlation between the increase in ANP and urine volume post-injury (p = 0.033). The changes in AVP, ANP and CORT are conducive to producing polyuria, and the timing of these changes coincides with the development of SCI-induced polyuria. This study identifies several therapeutic targets that could be used to ameliorate polyuria symptoms and improve quality of life in SCI individuals.

Concepts: Urine, Oxytocin, Peptide, Sequela, Late effect, Brain natriuretic peptide, Atrial natriuretic peptide, Polyuria


Dentofacial deformities have a marked impact on a patient’s quality of life. Fortunately, these deformities often can be corrected through orthodontic and surgical treatment. In adults, transverse maxillary discrepancies are often corrected by performing a surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE) procedure. This procedure is accompanied by many of the same complications involved in performing a Le Fort I osteotomy. Although major complications from maxillary surgery are uncommon, severe hemorrhage and cerebrovascular accidents are real risks accompanied by serious sequelae. The purpose of this case report is to describe a case in which a patient developed a massive middle cerebral artery infarct after a SARPE procedure. The authors discuss the possible etiology and pathogenesis of the complication. They also aim to remind surgeons of this rare complication to ensure prompt recognition and management to prevent delays in care.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Medical terms, Surgery, Physician, Middle cerebral artery, Sequela, Late effect