SciCombinator

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Concept: Late-2000s recession

803

Is existing provision of health services in Europe affordable during the recession or could cuts damage economic growth? This debate centres on whether government spending has positive or negative effects on economic growth. In this study, we evaluate the economic effects of alternative types of government spending by estimating “fiscal multipliers” (the return on investment for each $1 dollar of government spending).

Concepts: Medicine, Late-2000s recession, Rate of return, Government spending, Economics, Gross domestic product, Macroeconomics, Investment

98

After 2 decades of progress toward tuberculosis (TB) elimination with annual decreases of ≥0.2 cases per 100,000 persons (1), TB incidence in the United States remained approximately 3.0 cases per 100,000 persons during 2013-2015. Preliminary data reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System indicate that TB incidence among foreign-born persons in the United States (15.1 cases per 100,000) has remained approximately 13 times the incidence among U.S.-born persons (1.2 cases per 100,000). Resuming progress toward TB elimination in the United States will require intensification of efforts both in the United States and globally, including increasing U.S. efforts to detect and treat latent TB infection, strengthening systems to interrupt TB transmission in the United States and globally, accelerating reductions in TB globally, particularly in the countries of origin for most U.S.

Concepts: Western culture, Late-2000s recession, Latent tuberculosis, Humid subtropical climate, U.S. state, Poverty in the United States, United States, Tuberculosis

58

Several studies have shown a link between psychological distress in early life and subsequent higher unemployment, but none have used sibling models to account for the unobserved family background characteristics which may explain the relationship.

Concepts: Interpersonal relationship, Late-2000s recession, Business cycle, Sociology, Great Depression

57

To examine national changes in rates of cost-related prescription nonadherence (CRN) by age group, we used data from the 1999-2015 Sample Adult and Sample Child National Health Interview Surveys (n = 768 781). In a logistic regression analysis of 2015 data, we identified subgroups at risk for cost-related nonadherence. The proportion of all Americans who did not fill a prescription in the previous 12 months because they could not afford it grew from 1999 to 2009, peaking at 8.3% at the height of the Great Recession and dropping to 5.2% by 2015. CRN among seniors, however, peaked in 2004 at 5.4% and dropped to 3.6% after implementation of Medicare Part D in 2006. CRN is responsive to improved access related to implementation of Medicare Part D and the Affordable Care Act. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print August 23, 2016: e1-e4. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303269).

Concepts: Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, Health care, Medicare Part D, Medicare, Regression analysis, Late-2000s recession, Pharmacology, Logistic regression

56

A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession.

Concepts: Mental disorder, Macroeconomics, Business cycle, Inflation, Late-2000s recession, Labour economics, Recession, Unemployment

52

There has been a substantial rise in ‘economic suicides’ in the Great Recessions afflicting Europe and North America. We estimate that the Great Recession is associated with at least 10 000 additional economic suicides between 2008 and 2010. A critical question for policy and psychiatric practice is whether these suicide rises are inevitable. Marked cross-national variations in suicides in the recession offer one clue that they are potentially avoidable. Job loss, debt and foreclosure increase risks of suicidal thinking. A range of interventions, from upstream return-to-work programmes through to antidepressant prescriptions may help mitigate suicide risk during economic downturn.

Concepts: Recession, Unemployment, Business cycle, Late-2000s recession

45

AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess changes in alcohol use in the USA during the Great Recession. METHODS: Drinking participation, drinking frequency, drinking intensity, total alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking were assessed in a nationally representative sample of 2,050,431 US women and men aged 18 and older, interviewed between 2006 and 2010. RESULTS: The prevalence of any alcohol use significantly declined during the economic recession, from 52.0% in 2006-2007 to 51.6% in 2008-2009 (P < 0.05), corresponding to 880,000 fewer drinkers (95% confidence interval [CI] 140,000 to 1.6 million). There was an increase, however, in the prevalence of frequent binging, from 4.8% in 2006-2007 to 5.1% in 2008-2009 (P < 0.01), corresponding to 770,000 more frequent bingers (95% CI 390,000 to 1.1 million). Non-Black, unmarried men under 30 years, who recently became unemployed, were at highest risk for frequent binging. CONCLUSION: During the Great Recession there was an increase in abstention from alcohol and a rise in frequent binging.

Concepts: Inflation, Unemployment, Beer, Alcoholism, Late-2000s recession, Great Depression, Business cycle, Drinking culture

38

Health care in the United States is at a crossroads. With health care costs representing an unsustainable 17.6% of our gross domestic product, creation of a new, higher-value health care system has never been a greater priority. Although the rate of increase in health care spending has moderated during the economic recession, some experts predict that it will rebound as the economy recovers. Thus, the need for higher value in health care is urgent. The goal of high-value health care is to produce the best health outcomes at the lowest cost, and this goal has recently created a new alliance. . . .

Concepts: United States, Gross domestic product, Late-2000s recession, Sustainability, Economics, Government spending, Health care, Unemployment

30

The current political climate with regards to abortion in the US, along with the economic recession may be affecting women’s reasons for seeking abortion, warranting a new investigation into the reasons why women seek abortion.

Concepts: Late-2000s recession, Unemployment

29

Concurrently with increasingly permissive attitudes towards marijuana use and its legalization, the prevalence of marijuana use has increased in recent years in the U.S. Substance use is generally more prevalent in men than women, although for alcohol, the gender gap is narrowing. However, information is lacking on whether time trends in marijuana use differ by gender, or whether socioeconomic status in the context of the Great Recession may affect these changes.

Concepts: Sociology, Unemployment, Business cycle, Great Depression, Late-2000s recession