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Concept: Laryngeal mask airway

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To test the hypothesis that muscle relaxant is not necessary in patients who are undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery with a ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (ProSeal LMA™).

Concepts: Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Laryngeal mask airway

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INTRODUCTION: Various supraglottic airway devices are routinely used to maintain airway patency in children and adults. However, oropharyngeal airways or laryngeal masks (LM) are not routinely used during neonatal resuscitation. METHOD: The aim of this article was to review the available literature about the use of supraglottic airway devices during neonatal resuscitation. We reviewed books, resuscitation manuals and articles from 1830 to the present using the search terms “Infant”, “Newborn”, “Delivery Room”, “Resuscitation”, “Airway management”, “Positive Pressure Respiration”, “Oropharyngeal Airway” and “Laryngeal Mask”. RESULTS: No study was identified using oropharyngeal airways during neonatal resuscitation. Four trials including 509 infants compared positive pressure ventilation with a LM, bag and mask or an endotracheal tube. Infants in the LM group were intubated less frequently compared to infants in the bag and mask ventilation group 4/275 vs. 28/234 (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.05-0.34). Infants resuscitated with the LM had significantly less unsuccessful resuscitations 4/275 vs. 31/234 (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.03-0.28). Two trials including 34 preterm infants compared surfactant administration via LM vs. endotracheal tube. LM surfactant administration was safe and no adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The efficacy and safety of oropharyngeal airways during neonatal resuscitation remain unclear and randomized trials are required. The current evidence suggests that resuscitation with a LM is a feasible and safe alternative to mask ventilation in infants >34 weeks gestation and birth weight >2000g. However, further randomized control trials are needed to evaluate short- and long-term outcomes following use of laryngeal masks. In addition, surfactant administration via LM should be used only within clinical trials.

Concepts: Childbirth, Infant, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Endotracheal tube, Laryngeal mask airway, Oropharyngeal airway, Airway management

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PURPOSE: The air-Q® intubating laryngeal airway (ILA) is a supraglottic device (SGD) designed specifically to function as both a primary airway and a bridging device and conduit for fibreoptic intubation in difficult airway scenarios. This observational study evaluated the usability and performance characteristics of pediatric air-Q ILA sizes 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 when used as a primary airway. METHODS: One hundred ten children, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III and undergoing elective surgery, received a weight-appropriate air-Q ILA following induction of anesthesia. The evaluation criteria included ease of insertion, quality of ventilation, presence of gastric insufflation, oropharyngeal leak pressures (OLPs) and maximum tidal volumes (VT max) in five different head positions, and fibreoptic view of the glottis. RESULTS: For sizes 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5, the median [P25,P75] neutral OLPs (cm H2O) were 23.0 [20.0,30.0], 16.5 [15.0,20.8], 14.0 [10.0,17.8], and 14.0 [11.3,16.8], respectively. The median [P25,P75] neutral VT max values (mL·kg(-1)) were 17.4 [14.3,19.7], 20.3 [16.8,25.5], 17.8 [14.5,22.1], and 14.0 [11.6,16.0], respectively. Median [P25,P75] ease of insertion scores (0-10; 0 = easiest ever, 10 = most difficult ever) were 1 [1,2], 2 [2,3], 2 [1,2.8], and 2 [2,3] respectively. Ventilation was adequate in 108/110 cases, and a fibreoptic view of the vocal cords was obtained in 102/110 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The air-Q ILA functions acceptably as a primary SGD in infants and children. The OLPs are lower than published values for the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (LMA ProSeal™), the current pediatric SGD of choice, but adequate tidal volumes are readily achievable. The fibreoptic views of the glottis portend well for fibreoptic intubation through the device. (This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT00885911).

Concepts: Observational study, Surgery, Anesthesia, Endotracheal tube, Human voice, Intubation, Laryngeal mask airway, Oropharyngeal airway

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BACKGROUND: In Dutch ambulance practice, failure or inability to intubate patients with altered oxygenation and/or ventilation leaves bag-valve mask ventilation as the only alternative, which is undesirable for patient outcome. A novel Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme (LMA-S) device may be a suitable alternative. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of the LMA-S for emergency medical services in daily out-of-hospital emergency practice. METHODS: After a period of theoretical and practical training of ambulance paramedics in the use of the LMA-S, prospective data were collected on the utilisation of LMA-S in an observational study. Procedures for use were standardised and the evaluation included the number of direct intubation attempts before using LMA-S, attempts required, failure rate and the adequacy of ventilation. Data were analysed taking patient characteristics such as age and indication for ventilatory support into account. RESULTS: The LMA-S was used 50 times over a period of 9 months (33 involving cardiorespiratory arrest, 14 primary and three rescue). The LMA-S could be applied successfully in all 50 cases (100%) and was successful in the first attempt in 49 patients (98%). Respiratory parameters showed adequate oxygenation. All paramedics were unanimously positive about the utilisation of LMA-S because of the easiness of the effort of insertion and general use, and emphasised its value as a useful resource for patients in need. CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring ventilation support by using LMA-S by paramedics in prehospital emergency practice is safe and effective.

Concepts: Mechanical ventilation, Endotracheal tube, Intubation, Ambulance, Emergency medical services, Paramedic, Emergency medical technician, Laryngeal mask airway

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Upper airway ultrasound is a valuable, non-invasive, simple, and portable point of care ultrasound (POCUS) for evaluation of airway management even in anatomy distorted by pathology or trauma. Ultrasound enables us to identify important sonoanatomy of the upper airway such as thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, tracheal cartilages, and esophagus. Understanding this applied sonoanatomy facilitates clinician to use ultrasound in assessment of airway anatomy for difficult intubation, ETT and LMA placement and depth, assessment of airway size, ultrasound-guided invasive procedures such as percutaneous needle cricothyroidotomy and tracheostomy, prediction of postextubation stridor and left double-lumen bronchial tube size, and detecting upper airway pathologies. Widespread POCUS awareness, better technological advancements, portability, and availability of ultrasound in most critical areas facilitate upper airway ultrasound to become the potential first-line non-invasive airway assessment tool in the future.

Concepts: Biopsy, Future, Endotracheal tube, Larynx, Intubation, Tracheotomy, Laryngeal mask airway, Cricoid cartilage

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Mortality rates from birth asphyxia in low-income countries remain high. Face mask ventilation (FMV) performed by midwives is the usual method of resuscitating neonates in such settings but may not always be effective. The i-gel is a cuffless laryngeal mask airway (LMA) that could enhance neonatal resuscitation performance. We aimed to compare LMA and face mask (FM) during neonatal resuscitation in a low-resource setting.

Concepts: Childbirth, Infant mortality, Performance, Laryngeal mask airway

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INTRODUCTION: Airway management is an important component of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Recent guidelines recommend keeping any interruptions of chest compressions as short as possible and not lasting more than 10 seconds. Endotracheal intubation seems to be the ideal method for establishing a secure airway by experienced providers, but emergency medical technicians (EMT) often lack training and practice. For the EMTs supraglottic devices might serve as alternatives. METHODS: 40 EMTs were trained in a 1-hour standardised audio-visual lesson to handle six different airway devices including endotracheal intubation, Combitube, EasyTube, I-Gel, Laryngeal Mask Airway and Laryngeal tube. EMTs performances were evaluated immediately after a brief practical demonstration, as well as after 1 and 3 months without any practice in between, in a randomised order. Hands-off time was pair-wise compared between airway devices using a repeated-measures mixed-effects model. RESULTS: Overall mean hands-off time was significantly (p<0.01) lower for Laryngeal tube (6.1s; confidence interval 5.2-6.9s), Combitube (7.9s; 95% CI 6.9-9.0s), EasyTube (8.8s; CI 7.3-10.3s), LMA (10.2s; CI 8.6-11.7s), and I-Gel (11.9s; CI 10.2-13.7s) compared to endotracheal intubation (39.4s; CI 34.0-44.9s). Hands-off time was within the recommended limit of 10s for Combitube, EasyTube and Laryngeal tube after 1 month and for all supraglottic devices after 3 months without any training, but far beyond recommended limits in all three evaluations for endotracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Using supraglottic airway devices, EMTs achieved a hands-off time within the recommended time limit of 10s, even after three months without any training or practice. Supraglottic airway devices are recommended tools for EMTs with lack of experience in advanced airway management.

Concepts: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Endotracheal tube, First aid, Emergency medical services, Defibrillation, Emergency medical technician, Laryngeal mask airway, Advanced life support

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Supraglottic airway devices (SADs) have been introduced to assist medical professionals in emergency situations with limited experience in securing airways via conventional endotracheal intubation (ETI). Literature on the use of SADs for securing an airway during pediatric critical settings is scarce, and there is a lack of studies comparing different SADs to each other and to conventional ETI. We conducted a study comparing five different SADs to ETI with regard to success rate, time to first ventilation, and personal rating in a pediatric manikin under simulated physiologic and pathologic airway conditions in 41 pediatricians of varying clinical experience and training. Only the AirQ, AuraG, and laryngeal tube (LT) were inserted within 30 s correctly by all participants under physiologic conditions. In tongue edema (TE), AirQ and LT had the highest success rate. In limited mobility of the cervical spine (CS), AirQ, AuraG, and LT again all were inserted within 30 s. In a multivariate analysis, factors influencing the success were experience with the respective device and level of medical education. Under TE conditions, there were significantly longer insertion times for the ETI, laryngeal mask airway (LMA), and EzT. Under CS conditions, there were significantly longer insertion times for the ETI, LMA, LT, and EzT. A multivariate analysis showed experience with the respective device to be the only factor of influence on time to first ventilation.

Concepts: Time, Medicine, The Canon of Medicine, Physician, Endotracheal tube, Medical school, Intubation, Laryngeal mask airway

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Desflurane with a laryngeal mask airway may have advantages during ambulatory anesthesia. However, desflurane-induced airway irritability makes the use of desflurane challenging, especially in children. This study compared desflurane with sevoflurane maintenance anesthesia in terms of respiratory events and the emergence characteristics in children with a laryngeal mask airway.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Larynx, Laryngeal mask airway, Sevoflurane, Desflurane

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This video demonstrates the placement of a laryngeal mask airway, an alternative airway device that is both efficacious and easy to place. The laryngeal mask airway is routinely used for patients receiving general anesthesia and, increasingly, in patient resuscitation.

Concepts: Medicine, Patient, Physician, Illness, Doctor-patient relationship, First aid, Emergency medical services, Laryngeal mask airway