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Concept: Large


Currently, observations of an agricultural land system (ALS) largely depend on remotely-sensed images, focusing on its biophysical features. While social surveys capture the socioeconomic features, the information was inadequately integrated with the biophysical features of an ALS and the applications are limited due to the issues of cost and efficiency to carry out such detailed and comparable social surveys at a large spatial coverage. In this paper, we introduce a smartphone-based app, called eFarm: a crowdsourcing and human sensing tool to collect the geotagged ALS information at the land parcel level, based on the high resolution remotely-sensed images. We illustrate its main functionalities, including map visualization, data management, and data sensing. Results of the trial test suggest the system works well. We believe the tool is able to acquire the human-land integrated information which is broadly-covered and timely-updated, thus presenting great potential for improving sensing, mapping, and modeling of ALS studies.

Concepts: Better, Sociology, Data, Observation, The Trial, Graphic design, Large


Membrane transporters move substrates across the membrane by alternating access of their binding sites between the opposite sides of the membrane. An emerging model of this process is the elevator mechanism, in which a substrate-binding transport domain moves a large distance across the membrane. This mechanism has been characterized by a transition between two states, but the conformational path that leads to the transition is not yet known, largely because the available structural information has been limited to the two end states. Here we present crystal structures of the inward-facing, intermediate, and outward-facing states of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Neisseria wadsworthii. Notably, we determined the structures of multiple intermediate conformations, in which the transport domain is captured halfway through its elevator motion. Our structures present a trajectory of the conformational transition in the elevator model, revealing multiple intermediate steps and state-dependent conformational changes within the transport domain that are associated with the elevator-like motion.

Concepts: Structure, System, Transport, Trajectory, Trajectory of a projectile, Conformation, Large, Elevator


Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown.

Concepts: Cohort study, Cohort, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, At-large, Large


Malnutrition is a significant problem for hospitalized patients. However, the true prevalence of reported malnutrition diagnosis in real-world clinical practice is largely unknown. Using a large collaborative multi-institutional database, the rate of malnutrition diagnosis was assessed and used to assess institutional variables associated with higher rates of malnutrition diagnosis.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Hospital, Rates, Assessment, At-large, Reaction rate, Community Charge, Large


The impact of headache on dementia is largely unknown. This study examined the association between headache and dementia using data from a large population-based study.

Concepts: The Association, At-large, Headaches, Sunshine pop, Large


Planning for mass critical care in resource poor and constrained settings (developing or underdeveloped countries) has been largely ignored despite large densely crowded populations who are prone to suffer disproportionately from natural disasters. As a result, disaster response has been sub-optimal and in many instances hampered by lack of planning, education and training, information, and communication.

Concepts: Health care, Critical thinking, Sociology, Management, Developing country, Disaster, Large, Underdevelopment


Protein⁻protein interactions (PPIs) are tremendously important for the function of many biological processes. However, because of the structure of many protein⁻protein interfaces (flat, featureless and relatively large), they have largely been overlooked as potential drug targets. In this review, we highlight the current tools used to study the molecular recognition of PPIs through the use of different peptidomimetics, from small molecules and scaffolds to peptides. Then, we focus on constrained peptides, and in particular, ways to constrain α-helices through stapling using both one- and two-component techniques.

Concepts: DNA, Electron, Electric charge, Molecule, Atom, The Current, Constraint, Large


Persistent luminous nanoparticles (PLNPs) have been capturing increasing attention in biomedical imaging because of their long-life emission and concomitant benefits (e.g., zero-autofluorescence background, high signal-to-noise ratio). Although there are quite some synthetic methodologies to synthesize PLNPs, those for constructing functional structured PLNPs remain largely unexplored. Herein we report the design principle, synthesis route, and proof-of-concept applications of hollow structured PLNPs with near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence, namely afterglow, and tunable sizes for tumor afterglow imaging and chemical/photodynamic therapies. The design principle leverages on the crystallization of the immobilized parent ions on the purgeable carbon spheres. This strategy provides large and size-tunable hollow cavities to PLNPs after calcination. Building on the hollow cavity of PLNPs, high chemical drug (DOX) or photosensitizer (Si-Pc) loading can be achieved. The DOX/Si-Pc-loaded hollow PLNPs exhibit efficient tumor suppression based on the unique features of large cavity and afterglow of PLNPs. These hollow structured PLNPs, like traditional solid PLNPs, are quite stable and can be repeatedly activated, and particularly can selectively target tumor lesion, permitting rechargeable afterglow imaging in living mice. Our research supplies a strategy to synthesize hollow structured PLNPs, and hopefully it could inspire other innovative structures for cancer theranostics.

Concepts: Cancer, Synthesis, Luminescence, Dental caries, Phosphorescence, Signal-to-noise ratio, The Hollow, Large


We examined the ability of several Big Five measures to account for variance in HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO-PI-R) scales and vice versa. Some Big Five measures accounted for more variance in HEXACO Honesty-Humility than did others, but these differences were largely offset by opposing differences in accounting for variance in HEXACO Agreeableness and Emotionality. As a consequence, the various Big Five measures showed similarly large overall deficiencies in accounting for HEXACO scale variance, relative to variance accounted for in Big Five scales by HEXACO-PI-R scales. The results imply that the use of Big Five instead of HEXACO scales entails a large loss of information, about equal to the amount that would be lost by discarding one of the Big Five scales.

Concepts: Scale, Equals sign, Big Five personality traits, Musical scale, Equality, Scales, Large


Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is an increasingly used, effective treatment for end-stage ankle arthritis. Although numerous studies have associated blood transfusion with complications following hip and knee arthroplasty, its effects following TAA are largely unknown. This study uses data from a large, nationally representative database to estimate the association between blood transfusion and inpatient complications and hospital costs following TAA.

Concepts: Blood, Osteoarthritis, The Association, Joints, Blood transfusion, Large