Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Large


Currently, observations of an agricultural land system (ALS) largely depend on remotely-sensed images, focusing on its biophysical features. While social surveys capture the socioeconomic features, the information was inadequately integrated with the biophysical features of an ALS and the applications are limited due to the issues of cost and efficiency to carry out such detailed and comparable social surveys at a large spatial coverage. In this paper, we introduce a smartphone-based app, called eFarm: a crowdsourcing and human sensing tool to collect the geotagged ALS information at the land parcel level, based on the high resolution remotely-sensed images. We illustrate its main functionalities, including map visualization, data management, and data sensing. Results of the trial test suggest the system works well. We believe the tool is able to acquire the human-land integrated information which is broadly-covered and timely-updated, thus presenting great potential for improving sensing, mapping, and modeling of ALS studies.

Concepts: Better, Sociology, Data, Observation, The Trial, Graphic design, Large


Membrane transporters move substrates across the membrane by alternating access of their binding sites between the opposite sides of the membrane. An emerging model of this process is the elevator mechanism, in which a substrate-binding transport domain moves a large distance across the membrane. This mechanism has been characterized by a transition between two states, but the conformational path that leads to the transition is not yet known, largely because the available structural information has been limited to the two end states. Here we present crystal structures of the inward-facing, intermediate, and outward-facing states of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Neisseria wadsworthii. Notably, we determined the structures of multiple intermediate conformations, in which the transport domain is captured halfway through its elevator motion. Our structures present a trajectory of the conformational transition in the elevator model, revealing multiple intermediate steps and state-dependent conformational changes within the transport domain that are associated with the elevator-like motion.

Concepts: Structure, System, Transport, Trajectory, Trajectory of a projectile, Conformation, Large, Elevator


Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown.

Concepts: Cohort study, Cohort, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, At-large, Large


Malnutrition is a significant problem for hospitalized patients. However, the true prevalence of reported malnutrition diagnosis in real-world clinical practice is largely unknown. Using a large collaborative multi-institutional database, the rate of malnutrition diagnosis was assessed and used to assess institutional variables associated with higher rates of malnutrition diagnosis.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Hospital, Rates, Assessment, At-large, Reaction rate, Community Charge, Large


The impact of headache on dementia is largely unknown. This study examined the association between headache and dementia using data from a large population-based study.

Concepts: The Association, At-large, Headaches, Sunshine pop, Large


Planning for mass critical care in resource poor and constrained settings (developing or underdeveloped countries) has been largely ignored despite large densely crowded populations who are prone to suffer disproportionately from natural disasters. As a result, disaster response has been sub-optimal and in many instances hampered by lack of planning, education and training, information, and communication.

Concepts: Health care, Critical thinking, Sociology, Management, Developing country, Disaster, Large, Underdevelopment


With the advent from the laboratory bench to patient bedside in last five decades, vesicular systems have now come to be widely accepted as pragmatic means for controlled delivery of drugs. Their success stories include those of liposomes, niosomes and even the lately developed ethosomes and transferosomes. Pharmacosomes, which, as delivery systems offer numerous advantages and have been widely researched, however, remain largely unacknowledged as a successful delivery system. Though a large number of drugs have been derivatized and formulated into self-assembled vesicular systems, the term pharmacosomes has not been widely used while reporting them. Therefore, their relative obscurity may be attributed to the non-usage of the nomenclature of pharmacosomes by the researchers working in the area. We present a review on the scenario that lead to origin of these bio-inspired vesicles composed of self-assembling amphiphilic molecules. Various drugs that have been formulated into pharmacosomes, their characterization techniques, their properties relative to those of other vesicular delivery systems, and the success achieved so far are also discussed.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Research, Controlled vocabulary, Amphiphile, Success, Advent, Large


While treatment of DLBCL is largely outpatient, some patients require planned or unplanned admissions for chemotherapy, new diagnosis, relapse, or toxicity. We examined risk factors for receipt of inpatient chemotherapy and death during hospitalization.

Concepts: Hospital, Chemotherapy, Physician, Types of cancer, Lymphoma, Diffuse large B cell lymphoma, B-cell lymphoma, Large


The advent of nanotechnology has brought along new materials, techniques, and concepts, readily adaptable to lipid membrane-based biosensing. The transition from micro-sensors to nano-sensors is neither straightforward nor effortless, yet it leads to devices with superior analytical characteristics: ultra-low detectability, small sample volumes, better capabilities for integration, and more available bioelements and processes. Environmental monitoring remains a complicated field dealing with a large variety of pollutants, several decomposition products, or secondary chemicals produced ad hoc in the short- or medium term, many sub-systems affected variously, and many processes largely unknown. The new generation of lipid membranes, i.e., nanosensors, has the potential for developing monitors with site-specific analytical performance and operational stability, as well as analyte-tailored types of responses. This review presents the state-of-the art, the opportunities for niche applicability, and the challenges that lie ahead.

Concepts: Cell membrane, Lipid, Term, Lipid bilayer, Ad hoc, Membrane, Advent, Large


Rare diseases pose particular challenges to patients who are affected, to the clinicians who care for them, and to the investigators who study their conditions. Though individually uncommon, rare diseases are common in the aggregate, with the ∼7000 described rare diseases affecting 25-30 million Americans. Challenges posed to affected individuals and their families largely regard being diagnosed; receiving optimal care; and affording disease-specific medications. Challenges facing clinicians who care for affected individuals include gaining knowledge and experience in caring for such patients, and the availability of local experts and of expert guidelines. Finally, challenges to investigators regard the difficulty and expense of assembling large cohorts of affected individuals for study, and garnering funding for research. Fortunately, in the face of these challenges, the steadfast resolve of patient and clinical/scientific communities to enhance care and generate new knowledge have fostered a large inventory of “countermeasures” to offset these challenges. Though further progress is surely needed, successes to date include the formation of powerful patient advocacy groups which have brokered collaborations between the patient, scientific, government, and pharma/device communities in service of detection, optimal care, and research; procurement of funds to support research; formation of consortia of clinicians and scientists to collaborate; and general activation of the respective patient communities to perpetuate these successes. Persisting needs include enhanced detection strategies, dissemination of knowledge regarding optimal care, and research to prevent, treat, and cure disease.

Concepts: Medicine, Patient, Hospital, Affect, Patience, At-large, Collaboration, Large