SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Laparoscopy

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BACKGROUND:: The authors tested the hypothesis that during laparoscopic surgery, Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum may worsen chest wall elastance, concomitantly decreasing transpulmonary pressure, and that a protective ventilator strategy applied after pneumoperitoneum induction, by increasing transpulmonary pressure, would result in alveolar recruitment and improvement in respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. METHODS:: In 29 consecutive patients, a recruiting maneuver followed by positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cm H2O maintained until the end of surgery was applied after pneumoperitoneum induction. Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, blood pressure, and cardiac index were measured before (TBSL) and after pneumoperitoneum with zero positive end-expiratory pressure (TpreOLS), after recruitment with positive end-expiratory pressure (TpostOLS), and after peritoneum desufflation with positive end-expiratory pressure (Tend). RESULTS:: Esophageal pressure was used for partitioning respiratory mechanics between lung and chest wall (data are mean ± SD): on TpreOLS, chest wall elastance (Ecw) and elastance of the lung (EL) increased (8.2 ± 0.9 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 cm H2O/L, respectively, on TBSL; P = 0.00016; and 11.69 ± 1.68 vs. 9.61 ± 1.52 cm H2O/L on TBSL; P = 0.0007). On TpostOLS, both chest wall elastance and EL decreased (5.2 ± 1.2 and 8.62 ± 1.03 cm H2O/L, respectively; P = 0.00015 vs. TpreOLS), and PaO2/inspiratory oxygen fraction improved (491 ± 107 vs. 425 ± 97 on TpreOLS; P = 0.008) remaining stable thereafter. Recruited volume (the difference in lung volume for the same static airway pressure) was 194 ± 80 ml. PplatRS remained stable while inspiratory transpulmonary pressure increased (11.65 + 1.37 cm H2O vs. 9.21 + 2.03 on TpreOLS; P = 0.007). All respiratory mechanics parameters remained stable after abdominal desufflation. Hemodynamic parameters remained stable throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS:: In patients submitted to laparoscopic surgery in Trendelenburg position, an open lung strategy applied after pneumoperitoneum induction increased transpulmonary pressure and led to alveolar recruitment and improvement of Ecw and gas exchange.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Heart, Respiratory physiology, Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Lung volumes, Pneumoperitoneum

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The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon’s manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon’s hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques.

Concepts: Surgery, Physician, Tissues, Surgeon, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Anastomosis, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi

28

A prospective case series to assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy for the surgical management of recurrent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) after transvaginal polypropylene mesh prolapse surgery.

Concepts: Surgery, Evaluation methods, Organ transplant, Polypropylene, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Prolapse, Case series

28

A robotic system (da Vinci(®) Surgical System, Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has technical advantages over conventional laparoscopic surgery because it increases the precision and accuracy of anatomical dissection. The present study aimed to compare the short-term outcomes between robot-assisted intersphincteric resection (ISR) and laparoscopic ISR for distal rectal cancer.

Concepts: Time, Medicine, Surgery, Al-Andalus, Accuracy and precision, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Da Vinci Surgical System

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of multi-incisional transumbilical laparoscopic surgery for the management of nonpalpable undescended testes.

Concepts: Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Cryptorchidism

27

Current strategies for fertility preservation rely heavily on assisted reproductive technology and fertility-sparing surgery. Whether seeking to avert loss of fertility associated with excision of adnexal or uterine disease or to preempt gonadal failure resulting from chemotherapy or radiation, each woman is unique in her reproductive endeavor and will benefit from careful consideration of her fertility goals together with a specialist in assisted reproductive technology and reproductive surgery. Because avoidance of laparotomy reduces tissue trauma and adhesion formation, advanced laparoscopic surgery is an indispensable tool for all specialists who provide care for women seeking fertility preservation. Computer-assisted laparoscopy, commonly known as robotic surgery, addresses the practical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery and holds the promise of making complex fertility-sparing procedures safe and reproducible in the hands of reproductive specialists. Herein we illustrate the transforming capabilities of robotics in reproductive surgery and highlight the current and future potential of this technology in fertility preservation.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Surgery, Reproductive system, Fertility, Assisted reproductive technology, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Lindbergh Operation

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Purpose: Robotic surgical technology has been adopted by surgeons with and without previous standard laparoscopic experience. The necessity or benefit of prior training and experience in laparoscopic surgery is unknown. We hypothesized that laparoscopic training enhances performance in robotic surgery. Materials and Methods: Fourteen medical students with no surgical experience were instructed to incise a spiral using the da Vinci® surgical robot with time to completion and errors recorded. Each student was then trained for one month in standard laparoscopy but with no further robotic exposure. Training included a validated laparoscopic training program including timed and scored parameters. After completion of the month-long training, the students repeated the cutting exercise using the da Vinci® robot as well as with standard laparoscopic instruments and were scored within the same parameters. Results: The mean time to completely incise the spiral robotically prior to training was 16.72 minutes with a mean of 6.21 errors. After one month of validated laparoscopic training, the mean robotic time fell to 9:03 minutes (p=0.0002) with 3.57 errors (p=0.02). Laparoscopic performance after one month of validated laparoscopic training was 13.95 minutes with 6.14 errors, which was no better than pre-training robotic performance (p=0.20) and worse than post-training robotic performance (p=0.01). Conclusions: Formal laparoscopic training improved performance of a complex robotic task. Initial robotic performance without any robotic or laparoscopic training was equivalent to standard laparoscopic performance after extensive training. Additionally, after laparoscopic training the robot allowed significantly superior speed and precision of the task. Laparoscopic training may improve proficiency in operation of the robot. This may explain the perceived ease with which robotics is adopted by laparoscopically trained surgeons and may be important in training future robotic surgeons.

Concepts: Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Robotic surgery, Da Vinci Surgical System, Lindbergh Operation

27

The rate of stoma reversal after Hartmann procedure is low, principally because of the technically demanding nature of the reversal procedure and preexisting comorbid disease frequently present in this patient group. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann procedure is an attractive alternative that can reduce perioperative morbidity but the feasibility of completing the procedure laparoscopically is often limited by extensive adhesion formation present after the initial open operation. We describe a technique for laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann procedure where the stoma is mobilized externally and a pneumoperitoneum established through this preexisting defect. Results for the first 7 cases show a median operative duration of 132 minutes and length of hospital stay of 6 days with no conversions. Insertion of the operating ports under direct vision and a more limited dissection to facilitate the anastomosis represents an alternative operative strategy that can be performed successfully, even in patients with comorbid disease.

Concepts: Time, Patient, Hospital, Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Pneumoperitoneum, Hartmann's operation

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BACKGROUND: Hyperpyrexia associated with right iliac fossa pain and tenderness in a young patient is a common finding in an Emergency Department, and is frequently caused by acute appendicitis or genitourinary affliction. Especially in the case of young males, it is debated whether the patient should undergo immediate surgery or be referred for imagery, and, when surgery is finally planned, whether an open incision of the iliac fossa or a laparoscopic approach is preferred. OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of a patient with a twisted, ischemic ileal hemangioma mimicking an acute appendicitis, which was diagnosed and managed laparoscopically. CASE REPORT: A 16-year-old boy was admitted to the Emergency Department with a 2-day history of hyperpyrexia, nausea, right iliac fossa pain, and tenderness. Perioperative computed tomography scan showed a 3-cm image that was interpreted as a periappendicular abscess. At laparoscopy, a twisted ischemic mass adherent to the surrounding ileum was located and removed. The patient’s outcome was uneventful. Pathology showed a benign hemangioma of the ileal mesentery. To our knowledge, this is the first case treated by laparoscopic resection. CONCLUSIONS: Rare conditions, such as peduncolated tumors, can mimic common conditions like acute appencitis. Also, due to the aspecificity of symptoms and difficult interpretation of imagery, diagnosis can be difficult to achieve preoperatively and surgery can be challenging. Laparoscopy can allow a diagnosis to be made and the appropriate treatment to be performed without the need for laparotomy. Rare causes of appendicitis-like syndrome represent an argument in favor of a laparoscopic approach, even in the case of young male patients.

Concepts: Medical terms, Hospital, Surgery, Medical imaging, Pelvis, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Right iliac fossa

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Abstract Objectives: In the context of common adhesion prevention in laparotomic, laparoscopic and hysteroscopic surgery this article details the effects of a cross-linked sodium hyaluronate anti-adhesion barrier gel. The observed adhesion score is expressed in the following three measurements: Severity, extent and incidents of adhesions. Material and methods: From a total of 85 patients treated by laparoscopy and hysteroscopy, a second look endoscopic procedure could be performed in 35 cases. Results: Our preliminary, short evaluation of 35 patients submitted to a second look laparoscopy or hysteroscopy revealed the beneficial effect of the applied HYAcorp endo gel, showing only a minimal amount of adhesions at the second look observation. Conclusion: Cross-linked sodium hyaluronate is highly effective in the prevention of adhesions at laparoscopic and hysteroscopic surgery.

Concepts: Effect, Surgery, Effectiveness, Gynecology, Laparoscopic surgery, Laparoscopy, Endoscopy, Hysteroscopy