Concept: Laparoscopic surgery
BACKGROUND:: The authors tested the hypothesis that during laparoscopic surgery, Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum may worsen chest wall elastance, concomitantly decreasing transpulmonary pressure, and that a protective ventilator strategy applied after pneumoperitoneum induction, by increasing transpulmonary pressure, would result in alveolar recruitment and improvement in respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. METHODS:: In 29 consecutive patients, a recruiting maneuver followed by positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cm H2O maintained until the end of surgery was applied after pneumoperitoneum induction. Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, blood pressure, and cardiac index were measured before (TBSL) and after pneumoperitoneum with zero positive end-expiratory pressure (TpreOLS), after recruitment with positive end-expiratory pressure (TpostOLS), and after peritoneum desufflation with positive end-expiratory pressure (Tend). RESULTS:: Esophageal pressure was used for partitioning respiratory mechanics between lung and chest wall (data are mean ± SD): on TpreOLS, chest wall elastance (Ecw) and elastance of the lung (EL) increased (8.2 ± 0.9 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 cm H2O/L, respectively, on TBSL; P = 0.00016; and 11.69 ± 1.68 vs. 9.61 ± 1.52 cm H2O/L on TBSL; P = 0.0007). On TpostOLS, both chest wall elastance and EL decreased (5.2 ± 1.2 and 8.62 ± 1.03 cm H2O/L, respectively; P = 0.00015 vs. TpreOLS), and PaO2/inspiratory oxygen fraction improved (491 ± 107 vs. 425 ± 97 on TpreOLS; P = 0.008) remaining stable thereafter. Recruited volume (the difference in lung volume for the same static airway pressure) was 194 ± 80 ml. PplatRS remained stable while inspiratory transpulmonary pressure increased (11.65 + 1.37 cm H2O vs. 9.21 + 2.03 on TpreOLS; P = 0.007). All respiratory mechanics parameters remained stable after abdominal desufflation. Hemodynamic parameters remained stable throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS:: In patients submitted to laparoscopic surgery in Trendelenburg position, an open lung strategy applied after pneumoperitoneum induction increased transpulmonary pressure and led to alveolar recruitment and improvement of Ecw and gas exchange.
Iatrogenic right diaphragmatic hernia is very rare. We report the first case of a patient who had a diaphragmatic hernia after laparoscopic fenestration of liver cyst. A herniorrhaphy of the diaphragmatic defect was carried out after reducing the herniated organ. The postoperative course was uneventful. Diaphragmatic hernias are not as common as the traumatic type. Surgeons can easily miss diaphragmatic injuries during the operation especially after laparoscopy. Late diagnosis of iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernias is frequent. Ct scan is helpful for diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of diaphragmatic hernia at the time of diagnosis, even with asymptomatic patients. The incidence of iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia after surgery may be reduced if the surgeon checks for the integrity of the diaphragm before the end of the operation. A review of the literature is also performed regarding this rare complication.
BACKGROUND: Surgical conditions in laparoscopic surgery are largely determined by the depth of neuromuscular relaxation. Especially in procedures that are confined to a narrow working field, such as retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery, deep neuromuscular relaxation may be beneficial. Until recently, though, deep neuromuscular block (NMB) came at the expense of a variety of issues that conflicted with its use. However, with the introduction of sugammadex, rapid reversal of a deep NMB is feasible. In the current protocol, the association between the depth of NMB and rating of surgical conditions by the surgeon and anesthesiologist is studied.Methods/design: This is a single-center, prospective, randomized, blinded, parallel group and controlled trial. Eligible patients are randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) deep NMB (post-tetanic count, one or two twitches; n = 12) and (2) moderate NMB (train-of-four, 1 to 2 twitches, n = 12) by administration of high-dose rocuronium in Group 1 and a combination of atracurium and mivacurium in Group 2. The NMB in Group 1 is reversed by 4 mg/kg sugammadex; the NMB in Group 2 by 1 mg neostigmine and 0.5 mg atropine. Patients are eligible if they are over 18 years, willing to sign the informed consent form, and are scheduled to undergo an elective laparoscopic renal procedure or laparoscopic prostatectomy. A single surgeon performs the surgeries and rates the surgical conditions on a five-point surgical rating scale (SRS) ranging from 1 (poor surgical conditions) to 5 (excellent surgical conditions). The intra-abdominal part of the surgeries is captured on video and a group of five anesthesiologists and ten surgical experts will rate the videos using the same SRS. The primary analysis will be an intention-to-treat analysis. Evaluation will include the association between the level of NMB and SRS, as obtained by the surgeon performing the procedure and the agreement between the scoring of the images by anesthesiologists and surgeons. DISCUSSION: We aim to show that under the right conditions the perceived opposing goals of surgeons and anesthesiologists (optimal surgical conditions vs. optimal postoperative conditions) may be met without compromise to either.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01631149.
After 20 years of experience in laparoscopic liver surgery there is still no clear definition of the best approach (totally laparoscopic [TLS] or hand-assisted [HAS]), the indications for surgery, position, instrumentation, immediate and long-term postoperative results, etc.
The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon’s manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon’s hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques.
Objectives To determine whether preoperative dexamethasone reduces postoperative vomiting in patients undergoing elective bowel surgery and whether it is associated with other measurable benefits during recovery from surgery, including quicker return to oral diet and reduced length of stay.Design Pragmatic two arm parallel group randomised trial with blinded postoperative care and outcome assessment.Setting 45 UK hospitals.Participants 1350 patients aged 18 or over undergoing elective open or laparoscopic bowel surgery for malignant or benign pathology.Interventions Addition of a single dose of 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone at induction of anaesthesia compared with standard care.Main outcome measures Primary outcome: reported vomiting within 24 hours reported by patient or clinician.
Severe obesity affects 4% to 6% of US youth and is increasing in prevalence. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity is becoming more common, but data on cost-effectiveness are limited.
Operative correction of anorectal malformations (ARMs) remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. The study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of laparoscopic treatment of ARM in children.
A prospective case series to assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy for the surgical management of recurrent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) after transvaginal polypropylene mesh prolapse surgery.
To test the hypothesis that muscle relaxant is not necessary in patients who are undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery with a ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (ProSeal LMA™).