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Concept: Laminate


Hydrogels have been proposed for sensing, drug delivery, and soft robotics applications, yet most of these materials suffer from low mechanical robustness and high permeability to small molecules, limiting their widespread use. This study reports a general strategy and versatile method to fabricate robust, highly stretchable, and impermeable hydrogel laminates via hybrid lamination of an elastomer layer bonded between hydrogel layers. By controlling the layers' composition and thickness, it is possible to tune the stiffness of the impermeable hydrogels without sacrificing the stretchability. These hydrogel laminates exhibit ultralow surface coefficients of friction and, unlike common single-material hydrogels, do not allow diffusion of various molecules across the structure due to the presence of the elastomer layer. This feature is then used to release different model drugs and, in a subsequent experiment, to sense different pH conditions on the two sides of the hydrogel laminate. A potential healthcare application is shown using the presented method to coat medical devices (catheter, tubing, and condom) with hydrogel, to allow for drug release and sensing of environmental conditions for gastrointestinal or urinary tract.

Concepts: Laminate


In the new century, electrospun nanofibrous webs are widely employed in various applications due to their specific surface area and porous structure with narrow pore size. The mechanical properties have a major influence on the applications of nanofiber webs. Lamination technology is an important method for improving the mechanical strength of nanofiber webs. In this study, the influence of laminating pressure on the properties of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers/laminate was investigated. Heat-press lamination was carried out at three different pressures, and the surface morphologies of the multilayer nanofibrous membranes were observed under an optical microscope. In addition, air permeability, water filtration, and contact angle experiments were performed to examine the effect of laminating pressure on the breathability, water permeability and surface wettability of multilayer nanofibrous membranes. A bursting strength test was developed and applied to measure the maximum bursting pressure of the nanofibers from the laminated surface. A water filtration test was performed using a cross-flow unit. Based on the results of the tests, the optimum laminating pressure was determined for both PAN and PVDF multilayer nanofibrous membranes to prepare suitable microfilters for liquid filtration.

Concepts: Thermodynamics, Wetting, Surface tension, Polyvinylidene fluoride, Specific surface area, Surface chemistry, Laminate, Porous media


In this study, we intend to find the laminate condition for improvement of the chemical resistance of the aluminum pouch film widely used as the coating material of the secondary battery. Here, we investigated the properties including the initial adhesive strength and electrolyte resistance between the metal film layer aluminum and the sealant layer cast polypropylene (CPP) film. As for the laminating condition, we changed the temperature and line speed and maintained the identical pressure conditions. A roll-to-roll dry laminate coating system was used in surface treatment agent coating, adhesive coating, and film laminate. As for the laminate condition of the surface treated aluminum and CPP film, the initial adhesive strength of the laminated pouch film manufactured with 110 °C temperature and 30 m/min line speed was 1300 gf/15 mm. The adhesive strength of the 85 °C electrolyte resistance measured after being immersed for 7 days was found to be 800 gf/15 mm. The initial adhesive strength of CPP film laminated to aluminum without surface treatment showed 900 gf/15 mm and decreased sharply to 150 gf/15 mm in the electrolyte at 85 °C after an hour. The initial adhesive strength and electrolyte resistance of the aluminum and CPP were measured by using the universal testing machine.

Concepts: Materials science, Battery, Electrode, Epoxy, Universal testing machine, Test fixture, Adhesive, Laminate


Orthopaedic devices using unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) laminates potentially offer several benefits over metallic implants including: anisotropic material properties; radiolucency and strength to weight ratio. However, despite FDA clearance of PEEK-OPTIMA™ Ultra-Reinforced, no investigation of the mechanical properties or failure mechanisms of a medical grade unidirectional laminate material has been published to date, thus hindering the development of first-generation laminated orthopaedic devices. This study presents the first investigation of the mechanical behaviour and failure mechanisms of PEEK-OPTIMA™ Ultra-Reinforced. The following multi-axial suite of experimental tests are presented: 0° and 90° tension and compression, in-plane shear, mode I and mode II fracture toughness, compression of ±45° laminates and flexure of 0°, 90° and ±45° laminates. Three damage mechanisms are uncovered: (1) inter-laminar delamination, (2) intra-laminar cracking and (3) anisotropic plasticity. A computational damage and failure model that incorporates all three damage mechanisms is developed. The model accurately predicts the complex multi-mode failure mechanisms observed experimentally. The ability of a model to predict diverse damage mechanisms under multiple loading directions conditions is critical for the safe design of fibre reinforced laminated orthopaedic devices subjected to complex physiological loading conditions.

Concepts: Fracture, Materials science, Tensile strength, Young's modulus, Laminate


Electrospun veils from copolyethersulfones (coPES) were prepared as soluble interlaminar veils for carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Neat, resin samples were impregnated into coPES veils with unmodified resin, while dry carbon fabrics were covered with electrospun veils and then infused with the unmodified epoxy resin to prepare reinforced laminates. The thermoplastic content varied from 10 wt% to 20 wt%. TGAP epoxy monomer showed improved and fast dissolution for all the temperatures tested. The unreinforced samples were cured first at 180 °C for 2 h and then were post-cured at 220 °C for 3 h. These sample showed a high dependence on the curing cycle. Carbon reinforced samples showed significant differences compared to the neat resin samples in terms of both viscoelastic and morphological properties.

Concepts: Sample, Plastic, Composite material, Polyurethane, Epoxy, Laminate, Fiberglass


The surface activated bonding (SAB) method generally has the advantage of high bonding strength, low contact resistance, and high microstructural stability at room temperature. In this study, Ti-Al laminates were produced by surface activated bonding with aluminum and titanium foils. Heat treatment was conducted at the temperature range from 200 to 550 °C in vacuum. The bonding strength Ti-Al laminates was measured by a peel test, and the interfacial characteristics were investigated microstructural observation. The results showed that the bonding strength was the highest with heat treatment at 400 °C, microstructure observation revealed that the bonding strength of the Ti-Al laminate was influenced by the interfacial characteristics.

Concepts: Energy, Temperature, Thermodynamics, Aluminium, Materials science, Vacuum, The Advantage, Laminate


In this article, hybrid composite laminates with shape memory alloy (SMA) and glass fiber (GF) as the reinforced phase, and epoxy resin as the host material, were manufactured by vacuum-assisted resin injection (VARI) processing. The SMA wires were embedded into the GF/epoxy composites with three kinds of modes. The effect of SMA content and the position on the flexural, low-velocity impact performance of the hybrid composite laminates was investigated. It was found that the bonding performance between the SMA wire and the host material is the key factor that determined the final overall performance of the hybrid composite laminates in both the static and dynamics tests. Based on these experimental phenomenon, we further carried out the fiber pull-out experiment to improve the interfacial shear strength between the SMA and epoxy resin. It was found that the interfacial performance could be enhanced significantly by adding nanoparticles in the interface phase.

Concepts: Composite material, Metallurgy, Epoxy, Shape memory alloy, Laminate, Fiberglass, Composite materials


Paper-based analytical devices are an emerging class of lightweight and simple-to-use analytical platform. However, challenges such as instrumental requirements and chemical reagents durability, represent a barrier for less-developed countries and markets. Herein, we report an advanced laminated device using red emitting copper nanocluster and RGB digital analysis for signal improvement. Upon RGB system assistance, the device signal-to-background ratio and the calibration sensitivity are highly enhanced under a filter-free setup. In addition, the calibration sensitivity, limit of detection, and coefficient of determination are on par with those determined by instrumental fluorescence analysis. Moreover, the limitation of using oxidation-susceptible fluorescent nanomaterials is overcome by the introduction of protecting tape barriers, antioxidative sheets, and lamination enclosing. The robustness of device is highly advanced, and the durability is prolonged to more than tenfold.

Concepts: Fluorescence, X-ray fluorescence, Ultraviolet, Device, Reagent, Introduction, Laminate, Barriers


Time of flight (ToF) based method for damage detection using Lamb waves is widely used. However, due to the energy dissipation of Lamb waves and the non-ignorable size of damage in composite structure, the performance of damage detection is restricted. The objective of this research is to establish an improved method to locate and assess damages in composite structure. To choose appropriate excitation parameters, the propagation characters of Lamb waves in quasi-isotropic composite laminates are firstly studied and the broadband excitation is designed. Subsequently, the pulse compression technique is adopted for energy concentration and high-accuracy distance estimation. On this basis, the gravity center of intersections of path loci is employed for damage localization and the convex envelop of identified damage edge points is taken for damage contour estimation. As a result, both damage location and size can be evaluated, thereby providing the information for quantitative damage detection. The experiment consisting of five different sizes of damage is carried for method verification and the identified results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

Concepts: Electromagnetic radiation, Assessment, Wave, Subroutine, Damage, Laminate, Composite materials, Dissipation


In this paper, a new shape memory alloy (SMA) hybrid basalt fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP) composite laminate was fabricated and a new surface modification method with both silane coupling agent KH550 and Al₂O₃ nanoparticles was conducted to enhance the interface performance. The mechanical performance of BFRP composite laminates with and without SMA fibres and the influence of SMA surface modification were studied in this paper. Different SMA fibre surface treatment methods, including etching with both H₂SO₄ and NaOH, modification with the silane coupling agent KH550 and new modification method with both KH550 and Al₂O₃ nanoparticles, were conducted to enhance the bonding between the SMA fibres and polymer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the micromorphology of the SMA fibre surfaces exposed to different treatments and the damage morphology of composite laminates. The mechanical performance of the composites was investigated with tensile, three-point bending and low-velocity impact tests to study the influence of embedded SMA fibres and the different surface modifications of the SMA fibres. The results demonstrated that the embedded Ni-Ti SMA fibres can significantly enhance the mechanical performance of BFRP composite laminates. SMA fibres modified with both the silane coupling agent KH550 and Al₂O₃ nanoparticles illustrate the best mechanical performance among all samples.

Concepts: Composite material, Scanning electron microscope, Paper, Shape memory alloy, Laminate, Fiberglass, Composite materials, Composite laminates