There are few carefully-designed studies investigating the safety of individual probiotics approved under Investigational New Drug policies.
The suitability of three potential probiotic lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus casei CTC1677, L. casei CTC1678 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679), previously isolated from infants' faeces and characterized, and three commercial probiotic strains (Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Shirota) was assessed during the manufacture of low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) with reduced Na(+) and fat content. The inoculated strains were successfully monitored by RAPD-PCR during the process. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was the only strain able to grow and dominate (levels ca. 10(8)CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria population in two independent trials, throughout the ripening process. Thus, fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 as a starter culture could be a suitable vehicle for putative probiotic bacteria delivery. All the final products recorded a satisfactory overall sensory quality without any noticeable off-flavour, and with the characteristic sensory properties of low-acid fermented sausages.
Two experiments examined probiotic pretreatment (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like behavior induction by RU 24969 in BALB/cJ house mice. In the first experiment, two groups were defined by their daily pretreatment by oral gavage of either (a) L. rhamnosus (1×10 CFU/day) or (b) the saline vehicle. Both a 2- and 4-week probiotic pretreatment attenuated OCD-like behavior induction (increased perseverative open-field locomotion, stereotypic turning, and marble burying) relative to saline pretreatment. Experiment 2 re-examined the 2-week probiotic pretreatment while also comparing it to a 4-week fluoxetine pretreatment. Again, groups were defined by daily pretreatment of either (a) L. rhamnosus for 2 weeks, (b) the saline vehicle for 2 weeks, or © fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Pretreatment by either L. rhamnosus or fluoxetine blocked the induction of OCD-like behavior compared with saline pretreatment. Thus the 2-week probiotic pretreatment was again effective. Although side effects of fluoxetine or L. rhamnosus on androgen-dependent behaviors could not be demonstrated, L. rhamnosus treatment appeared comparable to fluoxetine treatment in attenuating mouse OCD-like behaviors.
- Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology (Print)
- Published over 6 years ago
Abstract A new gut bacterial adhesion model has been developed. For this, a continuous-flow bioreactor packed with bacteria-coated beads was designed to simulate the gut lining and other features. In vitro model efficacy shows successful bacterial cell gut adhesions: bacterial adhesion was higher with mucin-alginate compared to controls. In feasibility study, adhesion of Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 701359 was investigated for their metabolic activities for bile salt. Bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-active Lactobacillus reuteri exerted higher activity than non-BSH-active L. fermentum. This model has potential use in gut health, probiotic, bacterial cell gut adhesion and other delivery applications.
Three probiotic Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii, were tested for their ability to assimilate and metabolize glycerol. Biodiesel-derived glycerol was used as the main carbon and energy source in batch microaerobic growth. Here, we show that the tested strains were able to assimilate glycerol, consuming between 38 and 48 % in approximately 24 h. L. acidophilus and L. delbrueckii showed a similar growth, higher than L. plantarum. The highest biomass reached was 2.11 g L(-1) for L. acidophilus, with a cell mass yield (Y (X/S)) of 0.37 g g(-1). L. delbrueckii and L. plantarum reached a biomass of 2.06 and 1.36 g L(-1). All strains catabolize glycerol mainly through glycerol kinase (EC 126.96.36.199). For these lactobacillus species, kinetic parameters for glycerol kinase showed Michaelis-Menten constant (K (m)) ranging from 1.2 to 3.8 mM. The specific activities for glycerol kinase in these strains were in the range of 0.18 to 0.58 U mg protein(-1), with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 showing the maximum specific activity after 24 h of cultivation. Glycerol dehydrogenase activity was also detected in all strains studied but only for the reduction of glyceraldehyde with NADPH (K (m) for DL-glyceraldehyde ranging from 12.8 to 32.3 mM). This enzyme shows a very low oxidative activity with glycerol and NADP(+) and, most likely, under physiological conditions, the oxidative reaction does not occur, supporting the assumption that the main metabolic flux concerning glycerol metabolism is through the glycerol kinase pathway.
To investigate whether the specific strains of Lactobacillus reuteri modulates the metabolic syndrome in Apoe-/- mice.
Clinical studies have shown that probiotics positively affect oral health by decreasing gum bleeding and/or reducing salivary counts of certain oral pathogens. Our aim was to investigate the inhibitory effect of six probiotic lactobacilli against opportunistic oral Candida species. Sugar utilisation by both lactobacilli and Candida was also assessed. Agar overlay assay was utilised to study growth inhibition of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, Lactobacillus brevis CD2, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB86 and L. bulgaricus LB Lact. The inhibitory effect was measured at pH 5.5, 6.4, and 7.2, respectively, and in the presence of five different carbohydrates in growth medium (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and sorbitol). Growth and final pH values were measured at two-hour time points to 24 h. L. rhamnosus GG showed the strongest inhibitory activity in fructose and glucose medium against C. albicans, followed by L. casei Shirota, L. reuteri SD2112 and L. brevis CD2. None of the lactobacilli tested affected the growth of C. krusei. Only L. rhamnosus GG produced slight inhibitory effect on C. glabrata. The lower pH values led to larger inhibition zones. Sugar fermentation profiles varied between the strains. L. casei Shirota grew in the presence of all sugars tested, whereas L. brevis CD2 could utilise only glucose and fructose. All Candida species metabolised the available sugars but the most rapid growth was observed with C. glabrata. The results suggest that commercially available probiotics differ in their inhibitory activity and carbohydrate utilisation; the above properties are modified by different pH values and sugars with more pronounced inhibition at lower pH.
Celiac disease is characterized by enhanced intestinal paracellular permeability due to alterations of function and expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins including ZO-1, Claudin-1 and Occludin. Polyamines are pivotal in the control of intestinal barrier function and are also involved in the regulation of intercellular junction proteins. Different probiotic strains may inhibit gliadin-induced toxic effects and the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L.GG) is effective in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Aims of the study were to establish in epithelial Caco-2 cells whether i) gliadin affects paracellular permeability and polyamine profile; ii) co-administration of viable L.GG, heat-killed L.GG (L.GG-HK) or its conditioned medium (L.GG-CM) preserves the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. Additionally, the effects of L.GG on TJ protein expression were tested in presence or absence of polyamines.
A limited number of studies have investigated the potential of probiotics to promote wound healing in the digestive tract. The aim of the current investigation was to determine whether probiotic bacteria or their extracts could be beneficial in cutaneous wound healing. A keratinocyte monolayer scratch assay was used to assess re-epithelialization; which comprises keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Primary human keratinocyte monolayers were scratched then exposed to lysates of Lactobacillus (L) rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, L. plantarum or L. fermentum. Re-epithelialization of treated monolayers was compared to that of untreated controls. Lysates of L. rhamnosus GG and L. reuteri significantly increased the rate of re-epithelialization, with L. rhamnosus GG being the most efficacious. L. reuteri increased keratinocyte proliferation while L. rhamnosus GG lysate significantly increased proliferation and migration. Microarray analysis of L. rhamnosus GG treated scratches showed increased expression of multiple genes including the chemokine CXCL2 and its receptor CXCR2. These are involved in normal wound healing where they stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and/or migration. Increased protein expression of both CXCL2 and CXCR2 were confirmed by ELISA and immunoblotting. These data demonstrate that L. rhamnosus GG lysate accelerates re-epithelialization of keratinocyte scratch assays, potentially via chemokine receptor pairs that induce keratinocyte migration.
The objectives of this article are to review clinical trials that have examined the effects of probiotics on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and to assess the potential of probiotic intake as a therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) dietary option. Twenty-six clinical studies and two meta-analyses are reviewed. Significant LDL-C reductions were observed for four probiotic strains: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242, Enterococcus faecium, and the combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12. Two synbiotics, L. acidophilus CHO-220 plus inulin and L. acidophilus plus fructo-oligosaccharides, also decreased LDL-C. Of the probiotics examined, L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 was found to best meet TLC dietary requirements by 1) significantly reducing LDL-C and total cholesterol, with robustness similar to that of existing TLC dietary options, 2) improving other coronary heart disease risk factors, such as inflammatory biomarkers, and 3) having “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) status. Based on these results, the probiotic L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 is a viable candidate both for future TLC dietary studies and as a potential option for inclusion in TLC dietary recommendations.