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Concept: Lactic acid


In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry’s interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP.

Concepts: Lactic acid, Teeth, Dental caries, Tooth enamel, Sucrose, Oral hygiene, Dental restoration, Dental drill


Cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) can provide a barrier that precludes HIV and other sexually transmitted virions from reaching target cells in the vaginal epithelium, thereby preventing or reducing infections. However, the barrier properties of CVM differ from woman to woman, and the causes of these variations are not yet well understood. Using high-resolution particle tracking of fluorescent HIV-1 pseudoviruses, we found that neither pH nor Nugent scores nor total lactic acid levels correlated significantly with virus trapping in unmodified CVM from diverse donors. Surprisingly, HIV-1 was generally trapped in CVM with relatively high concentrations of d-lactic acid and a Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant microbiota. In contrast, a substantial fraction of HIV-1 virions diffused rapidly through CVM with low concentrations of d-lactic acid that had a Lactobacillus iners-dominant microbiota or significant amounts of Gardnerella vaginalis, a bacterium associated with bacterial vaginosis. Our results demonstrate that the vaginal microbiota, including specific species of Lactobacillus, can alter the diffusional barrier properties of CVM against HIV and likely other sexually transmitted viruses and that these microbiota-associated changes may account in part for the elevated risks of HIV acquisition linked to bacterial vaginosis or intermediate vaginal microbiota.

Concepts: Bacteria, Metabolism, Virus, Genome, Lactic acid, Sexually transmitted diseases and infections, Bacterial vaginosis, Gardnerella vaginalis


Intracellular concentrations of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) are many times greater than extracellular concentrations (1-10 mM versus 10-100 nM, respectively) and cellular release of ATP is tightly controlled. Transient rises in extracellular ATP and its metabolite adenosine have important signaling roles; and acting through purinergic receptors, can increase blood flow and oxygenation of tissues; and act as neurotransmitters. Increased blood flow not only increases substrate availability but may also aid in recovery through removal of metabolic waste products allowing muscles to accomplish more work with less fatigue. The objective of the present study was to determine if supplemental ATP would improve muscle torque, power, work, or fatigue during repeated bouts of high intensity resistance exercise.

Concepts: Metabolism, Energy, Muscle, Tissues, Lactic acid, Exercise physiology, Power, Waste


Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial imbalance of the vaginal microbiota associated with reproductive infections, preterm birth, and other adverse health outcomes. Sialidase activity in vaginal fluids is diagnostic of BV and sialic acid-rich components of mucus have protective and immunological roles. However, while mucus degradation is believed to be important in the etiology and complications associated with BV, the role(s) of sialidases and the participation of individual bacterial species in the degradation of mucus barriers in BV have not been investigated. Here we demonstrate that the BV-associated bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis uses sialidase to break down and deplete sialic-acid-containing mucus components in the vagina. Biochemical evidence using purified sialoglycan substrates supports a model in which 1) G. vaginalis extracellular sialidase hydrolyzes mucosal sialoglycans, 2) liberated sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid) is transported into the bacterium, a process inhibited by excess N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and 3) sialic acid catabolism is initiated by an intracellular aldolase/lyase mechanism. G. vaginalis engaged in sialoglycan foraging in vitro, in the presence of human vaginal mucus, and in vivo, in a murine vaginal model, in each case leading to depletion of sialic acids. Comparison of sialic acid levels in human vaginal specimens also demonstrated significant depletion of mucus sialic acids in women with BV compared to women with a normal lactobacilli-dominated microbiota. Taken together, these studies show that G. vaginalis utilizes sialidase to support the degradation, foraging, and depletion of protective host mucus barriers, and that this process of mucus barrier degradation and depletion also occurs in the clinical setting of BV.

Concepts: Childbirth, Bacteria, Cervix, Lactic acid, Vagina, Bacterial vaginosis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Clue cell


This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA) supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day). On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ), agility and muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP), muscle damage (CK) and oxidative stress (LOOH) were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility) recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6) was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise.

Concepts: Inflammation, Effectiveness, Lactic acid, Exercise physiology, Bodybuilding


Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are utilized widely for the fermentation of foods. In the current post-genomic era, tools have been developed that explore genetic diversity among LAB strains aiming to link these variations to differential phenotypes observed in the strains investigated. However, these genotype-phenotype matching approaches fail to assess the role of conserved genes in the determination of physiological characteristics of cultures by environmental conditions. This manuscript describes a complementary approach in which Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 was fermented under a variety of conditions that differ in temperature, pH, as well as NaCl, amino acid, and O(2) levels. Samples derived from these fermentations were analyzed by full-genome transcriptomics, paralleled by the assessment of physiological characteristics, e.g., maximum growth rate, yield, and organic acid profiles. A data-storage and -mining suite designated FermDB was constructed and exploited to identify correlations between fermentation conditions and industrially relevant physiological characteristics of L. plantarum, as well as the associated transcriptome signatures. Finally, integration of the specific fermentation variables with the transcriptomes enabled the reconstruction of the gene-regulatory networks involved. The fermentation-genomics platform presented here is a valuable complementary approach to earlier described genotype-phenotype matching strategies which allows the identification of transcriptome signatures underlying physiological variations imposed by different fermentation conditions.

Concepts: Gene, Bacteria, Acid, Microbiology, Lactic acid, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Sauerkraut


Natal dispersal of sea turtles is an energetically demanding activity that is fuelled primarily by aerobic metabolism. However, during intense exercise reptiles can use anaerobic metabolism to supplement their energy requirements. We assessed anaerobic metabolism in dispersing hatchling loggerhead and flatback turtles by measuring the concentrations of blood lactate during crawling and at different times during the first four hours of their frenzy swim. We also measured concentrations of blood glucose and corticosterone. Blood lactate (12.13 to 2.03 mmol/L), glucose (6.25 to 3.8 mmol/L) and corticosterone (8.13 to 2.01 ng/mL) concentrations decreased significantly over time in both loggerhead and flatback hatchlings and no significant differences were found between the species. These results indicate that anaerobic metabolism makes a significant contribution to the dispersal phase of hatchling sea turtles during the beach crawl and the first few hours of the frenzy swim.

Concepts: Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Cellular respiration, Lactic acid, Glycolysis, Sea turtle, Loggerhead Sea Turtle, Anaerobic respiration


This study’s aims to verify the energy expenditure, metabolic distress and usefulness to evaluate the anaerobic constructs for different all-out durations in running efforts. Twelve active male underwent four testing sessions, one for familiarization and three performing one all-out (AO) tethered running sprint lasting 30s, 20s or 10s. Oxygen consumption, excess post exercise oxygen consumption, and lactate production were retained to analyse metabolic function, together with mechanical power and work as performance parameters. Paired results were compared via one-way ANOVA for repeated measures (Tukey-HSD post-hoc), effect sizes and ICC for absolute agreement. Statistical significance was accepted at p ≤ 0.05. Despite total and energy expenditure from oxidative pathway being significantly higher for longer durations (p < 0.001; ES > 0.7), glycolytic energy expenditure presented an agreement between AO30s and AO20s (ICC-A = 0.63*), while the paired comparisons to AO10s have presented significant differences (p < 0.01; ES > 1.0). Phosphagen energy expenditure were similar between all-out durations (p = 0.12; ICC-A = 0.62*; ES < 0.5). Maximum mechanical power was higher in AO10s than in AO30s (p = 0.03; ES = 0.6), not being different between AO10s and AO20s (p = 0.67; ICC-A = 0.88*; ES = 0.2) and between AO20s and AO30s (p = 0.18; ICC-A = 0.56*; ES = 0.4). In addition, agreement between work in the first ten seconds was confirmed via ICC only between AO10s and AO20s (p = 0.50; ICC-A = 0.86*; ES = 0.3), but not for the other paired comparisons (p < 0.1; ICC < 0.45; ES > 0.5). AO20s is a better alternative to estimate anaerobic power and capacity in one single test, with similar oxidative demand than AO30s.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Statistical significance, Oxidative phosphorylation, Cellular respiration, Effect size, Lactic acid


Most studies have investigated the association between parental socioeconomic factors and dental caries in children based on educational and income levels; studies focusing on parental occupation, however, have been relatively limited. This cross-sectional study examined the associations between parental occupations and levels of education and household income and the prevalence of dental caries in Japanese children aged 3 years.

Concepts: Education, The Association, Lactic acid, Dental caries, Household income in the United States


Herein we use lessons learned in exercise physiology and metabolism to propose that augmented lactate production (“lactagenesis)”, initiated by gene mutations, is the reason and purpose of the Warburg effect and that dysregulated lactate metabolism and signaling are key elements in carcinogenesis. Lactate producing (“lactagenic”) cancer cells are characterized by increased aerobic glycolysis and excessive lactate formation, a phenomenon described by Otto Warburg 93 years ago, which still remains unexplained. After a hiatus of several decades, interest in lactate as a player in cancer has been renewed. In normal physiology, lactate, the obligatory product of glycolysis, is an important metabolic fuel energy source, the most important gluconeogenic precursor, and a signaling molecule (i.e., a “lactormone”) with major regulatory properties. In lactagenic cancers, oncogenes and tumor suppressor mutations behave in a highly orchestrated manner, apparently with the purpose of increasing glucose utilization for lactagenesis purposes and lactate exchange between, within and among cells. Five main steps are identified: (1) increased glucose uptake, (2) increased glycolytic enzyme expression and activity, 3) decreased mitochondrial function, (4) increased lactate production, accumulation and release, and 5) upregulation of monocarboxylate transporters MTC1 and MCT4 for lactate exchange. Lactate is probably the only metabolic compound involved and necessary in all main sequela for carcinogenesis, specifically: angiogenesis, immune escape, cell migration, metastasis and self-sufficient metabolism. We hypothesize that lactagenesis for carcinogenesis is the explanation and purpose of the Warburg effect. Accordingly, therapies to limit lactate exchange and signaling within and among cancer cells should be priorities for discovery.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Mitochondrion, Cellular respiration, Lactic acid, Glycolysis