Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Lacrimal gland


A 25-year-old woman presented with a painless inferomedial subconjunctival mass in the right eye. The growth had been present since birth and had been increasing in size for over 1 year. Incisional biopsy with debulking proved the lesion to be a dermolipoma extending behind the globe that contained ectopic lacrimal gland tissue. The authors describe a very rare case of a complex dermolipoma arising in an atypical location and containing ectopic lacrimal gland.

Concepts: Cancer, Biopsy, Eye, Lacrimal gland


Ragauskas et al.(1) demonstrated that when external pressure is applied, the orbit tends to equilibrate flow in the ipsilateral ophthalmic artery (OA) when its level approaches intracranial pressure (ICP). The authors detected this relationship by making the OA into a “natural pair of scales, in which the intracranial segment of the OA is compressed by extracranial pressure (Pe) applied to the orbit.”

Concepts: Intracranial pressure, Skull, Clinical psychology, Absolute value, Ophthalmic artery, Lacrimal gland


To study electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves for enhanced tear secretion, as a potential treatment for dry eye disease. We investigate the response pathways and electrical parameters to safely maximize tear secretion.

Concepts: Eye, Ophthalmology, Nerve, Tears, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Eye disease, Lacrimal gland


The lacrimal gland has a multifaceted role in maintaining a homeostatic microenvironment for a healthy ocular surface via tear secretion. Dry-eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye diseases that cause corneal epithelial damage and results in significant loss of vision and a reduction in the quality of life. Here we demonstrate orthotopic transplantation of bioengineered lacrimal gland germs into adult mice with an extra-orbital lacrimal gland defect, a mouse model that mimics the corneal epithelial damage caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction. The bioengineered lacrimal gland germs and harderian gland germs both develop in vivo and achieve sufficient physiological functionality, including tear production in response to nervous stimulation and ocular surface protection. This study demonstrates the potential for bioengineered organ replacement to functionally restore the lacrimal gland.

Concepts: Disease, Physiology, Epithelium, Eye, Cornea, Gland, Tears, Lacrimal gland


Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Lacrimal gland function has been shown to decrease with aging, a known potent risk factor for dry eye. We have previously found that orally administrated royal jelly (RJ) restored tear secretion in a rat model of dry eye.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Death, Eye, Visual impairment, Tears, Lacrimal gland


Supernumerary punctum is an under-reported congenital anomaly, in which there is more than one lacrimal punctum. Although usually asymptomatic, supernumerary puncta have been reported to cause dry eye or epiphora (excessive tearing) and should be included in their differential diagnosis. Tearing is often associated with dry eyes and can lead to discontinuation of contact lens wear. A comprehensive evaluation of the causes of tearing may uncover other contributory factors of epiphora. This case report highlights unilateral inferior double puncta in an otherwise asymptomatic patient. Due to increased evacuation of tears in the affected eye, manual occlusion of the puncta was advocated to allow topical medication to be more efficacious.

Concepts: Medical terms, Eye, Cornea, Topical, Tears, Corneal ulcer, Lacrimal gland, Lacrimal punctum


Alacrima, the lack of tears, is a rare clinical finding that has been reported as a feature of multiple genetic disorders and can serve as a diagnostic clue to some rare conditions. Causes of alacrima range from absence/hyposecretion of tears to agenesis or improper development of lacrimal gland ducts and associated structures. There are 13 known heritable disorders featuring varying degrees and causes of alacrima. Some manifest only the congenital absence of tears, while others affect multiple organ systems and may involve severe developmental delay, intellectual disability, and potentially life-threatening autonomic dysregulation. To aid in the diagnosis for patients manifesting alacrima, we review the major causes and the various genetic disorders associated with alacrima and provide a differential template for diagnosis.

Concepts: Genetics, Genetic disorder, Developmental biology, Mental retardation, Developmental disability, Tears, Heritability, Lacrimal gland


To understand the pathophysiology of dry eye disease (DED), it is necessary to characterize proteins in the ocular surface fluids, including tear fluid (TF) and lacrimal fluid (LF). There have been several reports of TF proteomes, but few proteomic studies have examined LF secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG). Therefore, we characterized the proteins constituting TF and LF by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. TF and LF were collected from patients with non-Sjögren syndrome DED and from healthy subjects. Through protein profiling and label-free quantification, 1165 proteins from TF and 1448 from LF were identified. In total, 849 proteins were present in both TF and LF. Next, candidate biomarkers were verified using the multiple reaction monitoring assay in both TF and LF of 17 DED patients and 17 healthy controls. As a result, 16 marker proteins were identified (fold-change > 1.5, p-value < 0.05), of which 3 were upregulated in TF and 8 up- and 5 down-regulated in LF. In conclusion, this study revealed novel DED markers originating from the LG and tears by in-depth proteomic analysis and comparison of TF and LF proteins.

Concepts: Protein, Eye, Chromatography, Proteomics, Proteome, Tears, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Lacrimal gland


Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial neoplasm of the lacrimal gland. The tumor typically presents with a superotemporal mass with inferonasal displacement of the globe. They generally measure less than 3 cm in size and can be removed comfortably via a lateral orbitotomy approach. Pleomorphic adenoma left unattended for a long period grows up to humongous proportions and poses a surgical challenge both for its complete removal and globe salvage. We report a rare case of pleomoprphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland in an adult male, who did not seek any medical advice for 20 years allowing the tumor to expand enormously in all dimensions, with complete obscuration of the globe. The tumor was excised completely and globe could be salvaged.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Surgery, Anatomical pathology, Benign tumor, Neoplasm, Lacrimal gland


Orbital exenteration is a radical surgical procedure resulting in deformity. It involves removal of the globe, optic nerve, extra-ocular muscles, orbital fat, lacrimal gland, and peri-osteum. Sino-orbital fistula (SOF) formation is a common documented post-operative complication, usually connecting the orbit and the ethmoid sinus. SOFs can cause leaks of serous fluid, and act as an entry site for pathogens into the orbit leading to socket infection and breakdown.

Concepts: Planet, Moon, Antiseptic, Optic nerve, Facial nerve, Education in the United States, Lacrimal gland