Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Lacrimal gland


A 25-year-old woman presented with a painless inferomedial subconjunctival mass in the right eye. The growth had been present since birth and had been increasing in size for over 1 year. Incisional biopsy with debulking proved the lesion to be a dermolipoma extending behind the globe that contained ectopic lacrimal gland tissue. The authors describe a very rare case of a complex dermolipoma arising in an atypical location and containing ectopic lacrimal gland.

Concepts: Cancer, Biopsy, Eye, Lacrimal gland


Ragauskas et al.(1) demonstrated that when external pressure is applied, the orbit tends to equilibrate flow in the ipsilateral ophthalmic artery (OA) when its level approaches intracranial pressure (ICP). The authors detected this relationship by making the OA into a “natural pair of scales, in which the intracranial segment of the OA is compressed by extracranial pressure (Pe) applied to the orbit.”

Concepts: Intracranial pressure, Skull, Clinical psychology, Absolute value, Ophthalmic artery, Lacrimal gland


To study electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves for enhanced tear secretion, as a potential treatment for dry eye disease. We investigate the response pathways and electrical parameters to safely maximize tear secretion.

Concepts: Eye, Ophthalmology, Nerve, Tears, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Eye disease, Lacrimal gland


The lacrimal gland has a multifaceted role in maintaining a homeostatic microenvironment for a healthy ocular surface via tear secretion. Dry-eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye diseases that cause corneal epithelial damage and results in significant loss of vision and a reduction in the quality of life. Here we demonstrate orthotopic transplantation of bioengineered lacrimal gland germs into adult mice with an extra-orbital lacrimal gland defect, a mouse model that mimics the corneal epithelial damage caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction. The bioengineered lacrimal gland germs and harderian gland germs both develop in vivo and achieve sufficient physiological functionality, including tear production in response to nervous stimulation and ocular surface protection. This study demonstrates the potential for bioengineered organ replacement to functionally restore the lacrimal gland.

Concepts: Disease, Physiology, Epithelium, Eye, Cornea, Gland, Tears, Lacrimal gland


Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Lacrimal gland function has been shown to decrease with aging, a known potent risk factor for dry eye. We have previously found that orally administrated royal jelly (RJ) restored tear secretion in a rat model of dry eye.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Death, Eye, Visual impairment, Tears, Lacrimal gland


Supernumerary punctum is an under-reported congenital anomaly, in which there is more than one lacrimal punctum. Although usually asymptomatic, supernumerary puncta have been reported to cause dry eye or epiphora (excessive tearing) and should be included in their differential diagnosis. Tearing is often associated with dry eyes and can lead to discontinuation of contact lens wear. A comprehensive evaluation of the causes of tearing may uncover other contributory factors of epiphora. This case report highlights unilateral inferior double puncta in an otherwise asymptomatic patient. Due to increased evacuation of tears in the affected eye, manual occlusion of the puncta was advocated to allow topical medication to be more efficacious.

Concepts: Medical terms, Eye, Cornea, Topical, Tears, Corneal ulcer, Lacrimal gland, Lacrimal punctum


To investigate the clinical and imaging features of primary and recurrent lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma (LGPA), as well as lacrimal gland malignant epithelial tumours (LGMET).

Concepts: Oncology, Lacrimal gland, Pleomorphic adenoma


Oncocytic metaplasia represents a histopathologic feature that can be observed in normal tissue such as salivary and lacrimal glands but may also constitute a degenerative metaplastic process as a result of repeated oxidative damage during cellular aging. Although cutaneous oncocytic metaplasia has been considered rare, the finding was seen in over one-third of melanocytic nevi prospectively evaluated, in one study. This case series reports on a small series of oncocytic melanocytic tumors, with the aim of describing this phenomenon in varied contexts and also describing the use of a mitochondrial antigen immunostain, which has not been previously reported.

Concepts: Cell biology, Oxidative stress, Oxidative phosphorylation, Reactive oxygen species, Report, Lacrimal gland


A 34-year-old previously healthy Hispanic male presented to the emergency room complaining of progressive left upper eyelid swelling and pain for more than 2 weeks. He was previously diagnosed and treated for a “pink eye” but failed to improve. He reported a previous “bug bite” around the left lateral canthus a few weeks prior to admission. Computer tomography orbit with contrast showed left exophthalmos, an enhancing left lacrimal gland and orbital inflammatory signs suggestive of possible intraorbital abscess. Intravenous antibiotics did not improve his symptoms. Surgical debridement showed no abscess but inflamed soft tissues and lacrimal gland. Intravenous steroids failed to improve his symptoms. On postoperative day 3, the patient reported that an insect had “jumped” out from his left orbit. Identification of the specimen proved to be a mature flea. Biopsy of the lacrimal gland showed degranulation of eosinophils and foreign body material consistent with probable insect leg parts.

Concepts: Inflammation, Flea, Eye, Conjunctiva, Lacrimal nerve, Tears, Lacrimal gland


To describe the clinical outcomes of eye-preserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with lacrimal gland carcinoma.

Concepts: Medicine, Lacrimal gland