Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Kylie Minogue


Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal drug carrier systems that contribute several properties required from a sophisticated drug delivery system for increasing drug bioavailability and providing effective therapy. Many advantages of SLN have been reported over traditional dosage forms and their colloidal counterparts in the studies since the early 1990s. They were optimized for oral drug delivery for the first time. The first SLN formulations were produced by reducing the particle size of solid lipid microparticles by spray congealing technique in the late 1980s. Then, studies have been continued investigating for their different administration routes else including parenteral, transdermal, ocular, nasal, respiratory etc.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Nanoparticle, Therapy, Sol-gel, Route of administration, 1990s, Instant messaging, Kylie Minogue


We examined whether culture-level indices of threat, instability, and materialistic modeling were linked to the materialistic values of American 12th graders between 1976 and 2007 (N = 355,296). Youth materialism (such as the importance of money and of owning expensive material items) increased over the generations, peaking in the late 1980s to early 1990s with Generation X and then staying at historically high levels for Millennials (GenMe). Societal instability and disconnection (e.g., unemployment, divorce) and social modeling (e.g., advertising spending) had both contemporaneous and lagged associations with higher levels of materialism, with advertising most influential during adolescence and instability during childhood. Societal-level living standards during childhood predicted materialism 10 years later. When materialistic values increased, work centrality steadily declined, suggesting a growing discrepancy between the desire for material rewards and the willingness to do the work usually required to earn them.

Concepts: Sociology, The Work, 1990s, Generation Y, Materialism, Generation, Generation X, Kylie Minogue


Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is associated with increased mortality. To prevent VAD, WHO recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) every 4-6 months for children aged between 6 months and 5 years of age in countries at risk of VAD. The policy is based on randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Recent RCTs indicate that the policy may have ceased to be beneficial. In addition, RCTs attempting to extend the benefits to younger children have yielded conflicting results. Stratified analyses suggest that whereas some subgroups benefit more than expected from VAS, other subgroups may experience negative effects.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Death, Clinical research, Ageing, Vitamin A, 1990s, Kylie Minogue


Understanding arrhythmias and their treatment is not always easy. The current straightforward approach with catheter ablation and device therapy is an amazing achievement, but does not make management of underlying or other cardiac disease and pharmacological therapy unnecessary. The goal of this paper is to describe how much of the knowledge of the 1980s and early 1990s can and should still be applied in the modern treatment of patients with arrhythmias. After an introduction, this review will focus on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and a prototype of ‘idiopathic’ ventricular arrhythmias, two diseases with a striking similarity, and will discuss the arrhythmogenesis. The ECG continues to play an important role in diagnostics. Both diseases are associated with a structurally normal heart; the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in triggering arrhythmias at both the atrial and ventricular level.

Concepts: Medicine, Brain, Medical terms, Heart, Atrial fibrillation, Cardiac electrophysiology, Parasympathetic nervous system, Kylie Minogue


In Korea, Carbon disulfide (CS2) toxicity was an important social problem from the late 1980s to the early 1990s but there have been few large-scale studies examining the prevalence of diseases after CS2 exposure discontinuance. So we investigated past working exposure to CS2 characteristics from surviving ex-workers of a rayon manufacturing plant including cumulative CS2 exposure index. Furthermore, we studied the prevalence of their chronic diseases recently after many years.

Concepts: Medicine, Carbon dioxide, Carbon, Carbon disulfide, Rayon, Viscose, Kylie Minogue, Cellophane


Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is an acute, severe, toxin-mediated disease, characterized by fever, hypotension, and multiorgan system involvement. Toxic shock syndrome has made headlines because of its high associated morbidity and mortality rate in previously healthy young females. Incidence peaked in the early 1980s owing to increased usage of ultra-absorbent tampons. After improved patient education and tampon labeling, the incidence of menstrual TSS has declined.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Mortality rate, Medical statistics, Actuarial science, Syndromes, Toxic shock syndrome, Menstruation, Kylie Minogue


Over the past 30 years, HIV care and treatment has changed beyond recognition in the UK. In the 1980s and 1990s services focused on providing support for people with a virus for which there was no treatment, and on end of life care.

Concepts: Gene, Life, United Kingdom, Anarchy in the U.K., Kylie Minogue


Mantle cell lymphoma is a relatively rare subtype of lymphoma with a great deal of heterogeneity, both clinically and biologically. Since its recognition as a separate entity in the early 1990s though, consistent efforts have led to a significant improvement of overall survival, from a median overall survival of 2.5 years initially to 5-7 years currently. This decades-long and stepwise progress, summarized in the article, definitely accelerated recently, shedding light on a changing paradigm.

Concepts: 1990s, Mantle cell lymphoma, Entity, Kylie Minogue


Surgical mesh was used in the 1980s and early 1990s for vertical banded gastroplasty as treatment for morbid obesity. This procedure was replaced by the more popular laparoscopic gastric banding in the mid-1990s. Surgical mesh, commonly used in hernioplasty, has been associated with increased F-FDG uptake related to an inflammatory foreign body reaction and is a known cause of false-positive PET scans. We present a case of increased F-FDG uptake related to surgical mesh in a patient who had undergone vertical banded gastroplasty.

Concepts: Obesity, Surgery, Positron emission tomography, Bariatric surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Bariatrics, Adjustable gastric band, Kylie Minogue


Reading Stephen Wright’s article on Tameside Hospital’s fall from grace (Reflections September 11) reminded me of the excellent work that came from its nursing development unit (NDU) in the 1980s and early 1990s.

Concepts: 2008 singles, 1990, Kylie Minogue, 1971 births, 1999