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Concept: Klebsiella oxytoca


Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are among the most severe threats to the antibiotic era. Multiple different species can exhibit resistance due to many different mechanisms, and many different mobile elements are capable of transferring resistance between lineages. We prospectively sampled CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals, together with a collection of CRE from a single California hospital, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks and determine whether there is evidence for transfer of strains within and between hospitals and the frequency with which resistance is transferred between lineages or species. We found eight species exhibiting resistance, with the majority of our sample being the sequence type 258 (ST258) lineage of Klebsiella pneumoniae There was very little evidence of extensive hospital outbreaks, but a great deal of variation in resistance mechanisms and the genomic backgrounds carrying these mechanisms. Local transmission was evident in clear phylogeographic structure between the samples from the two coasts. The most common resistance mechanisms were KPC (K. pneumoniae carbapenemases) beta-lactamases encoded by blaKPC2, blaKPC3, and blaKPC4, which were transferred between strains and species by seven distinct subgroups of the Tn4401 element. We also found evidence for previously unrecognized resistance mechanisms that produced resistance when transformed into a susceptible genomic background. The extensive variation, together with evidence of transmission beyond limited clonal outbreaks, points to multiple unsampled transmission chains throughout the continuum of care, including asymptomatic carriage and transmission of CRE. This finding suggests that to control this threat, we need an aggressive approach to surveillance and isolation.

Concepts: Sample, Hospital, Antibiotic resistance, Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella, Klebsiella oxytoca


Klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe lung and bloodstream infections that are difficult to treat due to multidrug resistance. We hypothesized that antimicrobial resistance can be reversed by targeting chromosomal non-essential genes that are not responsible for acquired resistance but essential for resistant bacteria under therapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. Conditional essentiality of individual genes to antimicrobial resistance was evaluated in an epidemic multidrug-resistant clone of K. pneumoniae (ST258). We constructed a high-density transposon mutant library of >430,000 unique Tn5 insertions and measured mutant depletion upon exposure to three clinically relevant antimicrobials (colistin, imipenem or ciprofloxacin) by Transposon Directed Insertion-site Sequencing (TraDIS). Using this high-throughput approach, we defined three sets of chromosomal non-essential genes essential for growth during exposure to colistin (n = 35), imipenem (n = 1) or ciprofloxacin (n = 1) in addition to known resistance determinants, collectively termed the “secondary resistome”. As proof of principle, we demonstrated that inactivation of a non-essential gene not previously found linked to colistin resistance (dedA) restored colistin susceptibility by reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration from 8 to 0.5 μg/ml, 4-fold below the susceptibility breakpoint (S ≤ 2 μg/ml). This finding suggests that the secondary resistome is a potential target for developing antimicrobial “helper” drugs that restore the efficacy of existing antimicrobials.

Concepts: Gene, Bacteria, Evolution, Antibiotic resistance, Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella, Klebsiella oxytoca


OmpK35 and OmpK36 are the major outer membrane porins of Klebsiella pneumoniae. We aimed to study the effect of combined porin loss and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) on imipenem susceptibility among K. pneumoniae clinical isolates.

Concepts: Enterobacteriaceae, Major, Enterobacteria, Egypt, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella, Klebsiella oxytoca, Porin


We sought to determine the genetic and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of commensal Klebsiella spp. circulating in Kenya by testing human stool isolates of 87 K. pneumoniae and three K. oxytoca collected at eight locations. Over one-third of the isolates were resistant to ≥3 categories of antimicrobials and were considered multidrug-resistant (MDR). We then compared the resistance phenotype to the presence/absence of 238 AMR genes determined by a broad-spectrum microarray and PCR. Forty-six genes/gene families were identified conferring resistance to β-lactams (ampC/blaDHA, blaCMY/LAT, blaLEN-1, blaOKP-A/OKP-B1, blaOXA-1-like family, blaOXY-1, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-2 families), aminoglycosides (aac(3)-III, aac(6)-Ib, aad(A1/A2), aad(A4), aph(AI), aph3/str(A), aph6/str(B), and rmtB), macrolides (mac(A), mac(B), mph(A)/mph(K)), tetracyclines (tet(A), tet(B), tet(D), tet(G)), ansamycins (arr), phenicols (catA1/cat4, floR, cmlA, cmr), fluoroquinolones (qnrS), quaternary amines (qacEΔ1), streptothricin (sat2), sulfonamides (sul1, sul2, sul3), and diaminopyrimidines (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA8, dfrA12, dfrA13/21/22/23 family, dfrA14, dfrA15, dfrA16, dfrA17). This is the first profile of genes conferring resistance to multiple categories of antimicrobial agents in western and central Kenya. The large number and wide variety of resistance genes detected suggest the presence of significant selective pressure. The presence of five or more resistance determinants in almost two-thirds of the isolates points to the need for more effective, targeted public health policies and infection control/prevention measures.

Concepts: Gene, Evolution, Antibiotic resistance, Antimicrobial, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella, Antimicrobials, Klebsiella oxytoca


In Klebsiella pneumoniae, overproduction of RamA results in reduced envelope permeability and reduced antimicrobial susceptibility but clinically relevant resistance is rarely observed. Here we have tested whether RamA overproduction can enhance acquired β-lactam resistance mechanisms in K. pneumoniae and have defined the envelope protein abundance changes upon RamA overproduction during growth in low and high osmolarity media.

Concepts: Protein, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterobacteria, Magnetic susceptibility, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacterial capsule


Patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) are associated with high mortality rates. Due to tigecycline has shown excellent in vitro activity against most pathogens, tigecycline is selected as one of the candidate drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant organisms infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the use of tigecycline for the treatment of patients with BSI. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched, to identify published studies, and we searched clinical trial registries to identify completed unpublished studies, the results of which were obtained through the manufacturer. The primary outcome was mortality, and the secondary outcomes were the rate of clinical cure and microbiological success. 24 controlled studies were included in this systematic review. All-cause mortality was lower with tigecycline than with control antibiotic agents, but the difference was not significant (OR 0.85, [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-2.33; P = 0.745]). Clinical cure was significantly higher with tigecycline groups (OR 1.76, [95% CI 1.26-2.45; P = 0.001]). Eradication efficiency did not differ between tigecycline and control regimens, but the sample size for these comparisons was small. Subgroup analyses showed good clinical cure result in bacteremia patients with CAP. Tigecycline monotherapy was associated with a OR of 2.73 (95% CI 1.53-4.87) for mortality compared with tigecycline combination therapy (6 studies; 250 patients), without heterogeneity. Five studies reporting on 398 patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae BSI showed significantly lower mortality in the tigecycline arm than in the control arm. The combined treatment with tigecycline may be considered the optimal option for severely ill patients with BSI.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Effectiveness, Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella, Klebsiella oxytoca


The increasing resistance to carbapenems is an alarming threat in the fight against multiresistant bacteria. The dissemination properties of antimicrobial resistance genes are supported by their detection in a diverse population of bacteria, including strains isolated from the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) collected from a river ecosystem in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain). Identification of β-lactamases and other resistance determinants was determined as was the antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Moreover, screening of virulence factors, plasmid addiction systems, plasmid partition systems and replicon typing was performed. The results identified 8 isolates belonging to different species (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Raoultella ornithinolytica). The most prevalent enzyme was KPC-2 (n = 6), followed by VIM-1 (n = 2) and IMI-2 (n = 1), whereas no OXA-48-type was detected. In addition, one strain was positive for both KPC-2 and VIM-1 enzymes. All the carbapenemase-encoding plasmids carried at least one plasmid addiction or partition system, being vagCD and parAB the most frequently detected, respectively. E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates carried a low number of virulence-associated factors and none of the detected clones has previously been identified in the clinical setting. These findings support the high dissemination potential of the carbapanemase-encoding genes and reinforce the idea that the environment is another reservoir that may play an important role in the capture, selection and dissemination of carbapenem resistance genes.

Concepts: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Escherichia coli, Plasmid, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterobacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca


We studied antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae for 1998-2010 by using data from The Surveillance Network. Susceptibility results (n = 3,132,354) demonstrated significant increases in resistance to all antimicrobial drugs studied, except tetracycline. Cross-resistance among carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae was lower for tetracycline and amikacin.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drug, Enterobacteriaceae, Antimicrobial, Enterobacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella, Klebsiella oxytoca


The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) producing bacteria has become a significant global public health challenge while the optimal treatment remains undefined. We performed a systematic review of published studies and reports of treatment outcomes of KPC infections using MEDLINE (2001–2011). Articles or cases were excluded if one of the following was fulfilled: no individual patient data provided, no treatment regimen specified, no treatment outcome specified, report of colonization, or greater than three antibiotics were used to treat the KPC infection. Data extracted included patient demographics, site of infection, organism, KPC subtype, antimicrobial therapy directed at KPC-infection, and treatment outcome. Statistical analysis was performed in an exploratory manner using JMP 8.0 ® (SAS Corp, Cary, NC). A total of 38 articles comprising 105 cases were included in the analysis. The majority of infections were due to K. pneumoniae (89%). The most common site of infection was blood (52%), followed by respiratory (30%), and urine (10%). Forty-nine (47%) cases received monotherapy and 56 (53%) cases received combination therapy directed at the KPC-infection. Significantly more treatment failures were seen in cases that received monotherapy compared to cases who received combination therapy (49% vs 25%; p= 0.01). Respiratory infections were associated with higher rates of treatment failure with monotherapy compared to combination therapy (67% vs 29% p= 0.03). Polymyxin monotherapy was associated with higher treatment failure rates compared to polymyxin-based combination therapy (73% vs 29%; p= 0.02); similarly, higher treatment failure rates were seen with carbapenem monotherapy compared to carbapenem-based combination therapy (60% vs 26%; p= 0.03). Overall treatment failure rates were not significantly different in the three most common antibiotic-class combinations: polymyxin plus carbapenem, polymyxin plus tigecycline, polymyxin plus aminoglycoside (30%, 29%, and 25% respectively; p=0.6). In conclusion, combination therapy should be used for the treatment of KPC infections; however, which combination of antimicrobial agents needs to be established in future prospective clinical trials.

Concepts: Enterobacteriaceae, Antimicrobial, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella, Antimicrobials, Klebsiella oxytoca


Carbapenem resistance is a critical healthcare challenge worldwide. Particularly concerning is the widespread dissemination of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring blaKPC (KPC-Kpn) is endemic in many areas including the United States, where the epidemic was primarily mediated by the clonal dissemination of Kpn ST258. We postulated that the spread of blaKPC in other regions occurs by different and more complex mechanisms. To test this, we investigated the evolution and dynamics of spread of KPC-Kpn in Colombia, where KPC became rapidly endemic after emerging in 2005.

Concepts: Evolution, United States, U.S. state, Enterobacteriaceae, Philippines, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella, Klebsiella oxytoca