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Concept: Kinship terminology


We investigate the consequences of adopting the criteria used by the state of California, as described by Myers et al. (2011), for conducting familial searches. We carried out a simulation study of randomly generated profiles of related and unrelated individuals with 13-locus CODIS genotypes and YFiler® Y-chromosome haplotypes, on which the Myers protocol for relative identification was carried out. For Y-chromosome sharing first degree relatives, the Myers protocol has a high probability ([Formula: see text]) of identifying their relationship. For unrelated individuals, there is a low probability that an unrelated person in the database will be identified as a first-degree relative. For more distant Y-haplotype sharing relatives (half-siblings, first cousins, half-first cousins or second cousins) there is a substantial probability that the more distant relative will be incorrectly identified as a first-degree relative. For example, there is a [Formula: see text] probability that a first cousin will be identified as a full sibling, with the probability depending on the population background. Although the California familial search policy is likely to identify a first degree relative if his profile is in the database, and it poses little risk of falsely identifying an unrelated individual in a database as a first-degree relative, there is a substantial risk of falsely identifying a more distant Y-haplotype sharing relative in the database as a first-degree relative, with the consequence that their immediate family may become the target for further investigation. This risk falls disproportionately on those ethnic groups that are currently overrepresented in state and federal databases.

Concepts: Family, Kinship terminology, Consanguinity, Cousin


A genetic predisposition to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia has been demonstrated in animals, suggesting that genetic differences might influence susceptibility to S aureus in humans.

Concepts: Family, Cohort study, Staphylococcus aureus, Kinship terminology


PURPOSENodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is one of the two established Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) subtypes. The risk factors of NLPHL are largely unknown. In general, genetic factors are known to have a modest effect on the risk of HL; however, familial risk in NLPHL has not been previously examined. We conducted a population-based study by using the Finnish registries and evaluated the familial risk in NLPHL. PATIENTS AND METHODSWe launched a population-based search to identify patients with NLPHL and their relatives by examining the records of the Finnish Cancer Registry, established in 1953, and the official Finnish population registries. We collected a data set of 692 patients with NLPHL, identified their 4,280 first-degree relatives, and calculated the registry-based standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for different cancers in the first-degree relatives. In addition, the primary tumor biopsies of HL-affected relatives were collected when possible, the HL diagnoses were re-reviewed by a hematopathologist, and the SIR for NLPHL was calculated on the basis of confirmed NLPHL diagnoses.ResultsOn the basis of confirmed NLPHL diagnoses, the SIR for NLPHL was 19 (95% CI, 8.8 to 36) in the first-degree relatives. The risk was most prominent in female relatives of young patients. The registry-based SIR for classical HL was 5.3 (95% CI, 3.0 to 8.8), and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, it was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.6). CONCLUSIONOur results implicate an unexpectedly high familial component in the development of NLPHL. Research is warranted to identify the putative genetic and environmental factors underlying this finding and to develop strategies for better management of patients with NLPHL and their relatives.

Concepts: Family, Genetics, Cancer, Pathology, Lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Kinship terminology, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma


The caring experiences of female families of persons with schizophrenia were described through exploring the families' descriptions of their experiences. Focus group interviews were conducted with 11 family caregivers. According to content analysis, the experiences revealed five major themes: early family experiences, family perceptions of illness and relatives with schizophrenia, family burden and suffering, family attitudes toward relatives with schizophrenia, and family thoughts about society and mental health resources. Also, the families had strength to overcome considerable adversity. It is needed for professionals to listen to family caregivers' narratives carefully and improve the support by focusing on accepting their experiences and histories with persons with schizophrenia.

Concepts: Family, Psychology, Marriage, Focus group, Mind, Kinship terminology, Eskimo kinship, Kinship


The risk of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cirrhosis (NAFLD-cirrhosis) is unknown and needs to be systematically quantified. We aimed to prospectively assess the risk of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis.

Concepts: Family, Cirrhosis, Hepatology, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Fatty liver, Steatosis, Kinship terminology, Steatohepatitis


Mood disorders are the most common comorbid conditions in epilepsy, but the cause remains unclear. One possible explanation is a shared genetic susceptibility to epilepsy and mood disorders. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating lifetime prevalence of mood disorders in relatives with and without epilepsy in families containing multiple individuals with epilepsy, and comparing the findings with rates from a general population sample.

Concepts: Family, Marriage, Biology, Kinship terminology, Eskimo kinship, Kinship, Hawaiian kinship, 1997 albums


The relatives of intensive care unit (ICU) patients must cope with both the severity of illness of their loved one and the unfamiliar and stressful ICU environment. This hardship may lead to post-intensive care syndrome. French guidelines provide recommendations on welcoming and informing families of ICU patients. We questioned whether and how they are applied 5 years after their publication.

Concepts: Family, Medical terms, Patient, Illness, Academic publishing, Research, Kinship terminology, Eskimo kinship


The Genes and Environment in Multiple Sclerosis (GEMS) project establishes a platform to investigate the events leading to MS in at-risk individuals. It has recruited 2,632 first-degree relatives from across the USA. Using an integrated genetic and environmental risk score, we identified subjects with twice the MS risk when compared to the average family member, and we report an initial incidence rate in these subjects that is 30 times greater than that of sporadic MS. We discuss the feasibility of large-scale studies of asymptomatic at-risk subjects that leverage modern tools of subject recruitment to execute collaborative projects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Family, Genetics, United States, Incidence, Multiple sclerosis, Kinship terminology, All rights reserved, Copyright


This article builds on and develops the emerging bioethics literature on the ‘window of opportunity’ for allowing death by withholding or withdrawing treatment. Our findings are drawn from in-depth interviews with 26 people (from 14 different families) with severely brain injured relatives. These interviews were specifically selected from a larger study on the basis of interviewees' reports that their relatives would not have wanted to be kept alive in their current condition (e.g. in vegetative or minimally conscious states). Our analysis tracks the decision-making processes that have led to the situation in which life-sustaining treatments continue to be delivered to these patients - maintaining them in a state that some families describe as a ‘fate worse than death’. We show how the medico-legal ‘window of opportunity’ for allowing the patient to die structures family experience and fails to deliver optimal outcomes for patients. We end with some suggestions for change.

Concepts: Family, Patient, Traumatic brain injury, Interview, Kinship terminology, American films, Eskimo kinship, Kinship


Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

Concepts: Marriage, Face, Kinship terminology, Kinship and descent, Consanguinity, Kinship, Genealogy, Facial recognition system