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Concept: Kinship terminology

30

We investigate the consequences of adopting the criteria used by the state of California, as described by Myers et al. (2011), for conducting familial searches. We carried out a simulation study of randomly generated profiles of related and unrelated individuals with 13-locus CODIS genotypes and YFiler® Y-chromosome haplotypes, on which the Myers protocol for relative identification was carried out. For Y-chromosome sharing first degree relatives, the Myers protocol has a high probability ([Formula: see text]) of identifying their relationship. For unrelated individuals, there is a low probability that an unrelated person in the database will be identified as a first-degree relative. For more distant Y-haplotype sharing relatives (half-siblings, first cousins, half-first cousins or second cousins) there is a substantial probability that the more distant relative will be incorrectly identified as a first-degree relative. For example, there is a [Formula: see text] probability that a first cousin will be identified as a full sibling, with the probability depending on the population background. Although the California familial search policy is likely to identify a first degree relative if his profile is in the database, and it poses little risk of falsely identifying an unrelated individual in a database as a first-degree relative, there is a substantial risk of falsely identifying a more distant Y-haplotype sharing relative in the database as a first-degree relative, with the consequence that their immediate family may become the target for further investigation. This risk falls disproportionately on those ethnic groups that are currently overrepresented in state and federal databases.

Concepts: Family, Kinship terminology, Consanguinity, Cousin

28

A genetic predisposition to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia has been demonstrated in animals, suggesting that genetic differences might influence susceptibility to S aureus in humans.

Concepts: Family, Cohort study, Staphylococcus aureus, Kinship terminology

28

PURPOSENodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is one of the two established Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) subtypes. The risk factors of NLPHL are largely unknown. In general, genetic factors are known to have a modest effect on the risk of HL; however, familial risk in NLPHL has not been previously examined. We conducted a population-based study by using the Finnish registries and evaluated the familial risk in NLPHL. PATIENTS AND METHODSWe launched a population-based search to identify patients with NLPHL and their relatives by examining the records of the Finnish Cancer Registry, established in 1953, and the official Finnish population registries. We collected a data set of 692 patients with NLPHL, identified their 4,280 first-degree relatives, and calculated the registry-based standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for different cancers in the first-degree relatives. In addition, the primary tumor biopsies of HL-affected relatives were collected when possible, the HL diagnoses were re-reviewed by a hematopathologist, and the SIR for NLPHL was calculated on the basis of confirmed NLPHL diagnoses.ResultsOn the basis of confirmed NLPHL diagnoses, the SIR for NLPHL was 19 (95% CI, 8.8 to 36) in the first-degree relatives. The risk was most prominent in female relatives of young patients. The registry-based SIR for classical HL was 5.3 (95% CI, 3.0 to 8.8), and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, it was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.6). CONCLUSIONOur results implicate an unexpectedly high familial component in the development of NLPHL. Research is warranted to identify the putative genetic and environmental factors underlying this finding and to develop strategies for better management of patients with NLPHL and their relatives.

Concepts: Family, Genetics, Cancer, Pathology, Lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Kinship terminology, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

27

The caring experiences of female families of persons with schizophrenia were described through exploring the families' descriptions of their experiences. Focus group interviews were conducted with 11 family caregivers. According to content analysis, the experiences revealed five major themes: early family experiences, family perceptions of illness and relatives with schizophrenia, family burden and suffering, family attitudes toward relatives with schizophrenia, and family thoughts about society and mental health resources. Also, the families had strength to overcome considerable adversity. It is needed for professionals to listen to family caregivers' narratives carefully and improve the support by focusing on accepting their experiences and histories with persons with schizophrenia.

Concepts: Family, Psychology, Marriage, Focus group, Mind, Kinship terminology, Eskimo kinship, Kinship

6

Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

Concepts: Marriage, Face, Kinship terminology, Kinship and descent, Consanguinity, Kinship, Genealogy, Facial recognition system

5

The relatives of intensive care unit (ICU) patients must cope with both the severity of illness of their loved one and the unfamiliar and stressful ICU environment. This hardship may lead to post-intensive care syndrome. French guidelines provide recommendations on welcoming and informing families of ICU patients. We questioned whether and how they are applied 5 years after their publication.

Concepts: Family, Medical terms, Patient, Illness, Academic publishing, Research, Kinship terminology, Eskimo kinship

5

The Genes and Environment in Multiple Sclerosis (GEMS) project establishes a platform to investigate the events leading to MS in at-risk individuals. It has recruited 2,632 first-degree relatives from across the USA. Using an integrated genetic and environmental risk score, we identified subjects with twice the MS risk when compared to the average family member, and we report an initial incidence rate in these subjects that is 30 times greater than that of sporadic MS. We discuss the feasibility of large-scale studies of asymptomatic at-risk subjects that leverage modern tools of subject recruitment to execute collaborative projects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Family, Genetics, United States, Incidence, Multiple sclerosis, Kinship terminology, All rights reserved, Copyright

4

This article is based on a qualitative empirical project about a distinct kinship group who were among the first identified internationally as having a genetic susceptibility to cancer (Lynch Syndrome). 50 were invited to participate (42 were tested; eight declined genetic testing). 15, who had all accepted testing, were interviewed. They form a unique case study. This study aimed to explore interviewees' experiences of genetic testing and how these influenced their family relationships. A key finding was that participants framed the decision to be tested as ‘common sense’; the idea of choice around the decision was negated and replaced by a moral imperative to be tested. Those who did not follow ‘common sense’ were judged to be imprudent. Family members who declined testing were discussed negatively by participants. The article addresses what is ethically problematic about how test decliners were discussed and whether these ethical concerns extend to others who are offered genetic testing. Discussions showed that genetic testing was viewed as both an autonomous choice and a responsibility. Yet the apparent conflict between the right to autonomy and the moral imperative of responsibility allowed participants to defend test decliners' decisions by expressing a preference for or defending choice over responsibility. The ‘right not to know’ seemed an important moral construct to help ethically manage unpopular decisions made by close family who declined testing. In light of this research, the erosion of the ‘right not to know’ in the genomic age could have subtle yet profound consequences for family relationships.

Concepts: Family, Genetics, Cancer, Genomics, Autonomy, Qualitative research, Choice, Kinship terminology

4

Evidence suggests that the risk of breast and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease and particularly among first-degree relatives. However, less is known about the relationship between breast and prostate cancer within families and particularly among minority populations.

Concepts: Family, Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Estrogen, BRCA2, Kinship terminology, Brachytherapy

2

International suicide prevention strategies recommend providing support to families bereaved by suicide. The study objectives were to measure the proportion of cases in which psychiatric professionals contact next of kin after a patient’s suicide and to investigate whether specific, potentially stigmatizing patient characteristics influence whether the family is contacted.

Concepts: Family, Marriage, Kinship terminology, Eskimo kinship, Kinship, Hawaiian kinship, Fictive kinship, Next of kin