Concept: King Saud University
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of admissions criteria at King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to predict students' early academic performance at three health science colleges (medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy). A retrospective cohort study was conducted with data from the records of students enrolled in the three colleges from the 2008-09 to 2010-11 academic years. The admissions criteria-high school grade average (HSGA), aptitude test (APT) score, and achievement test (ACT) score-were the independent variables. The dependent variable was the average of students' first- and second-year grade point average (GPA). The results showed that the ACT was a better predictor of the students' early academic performance than the HSGA (β=0.368, β=0.254, respectively). No significant relationship was found between the APT and students' early academic performance (β=-0.019, p>0.01). The ACT was most predictive for pharmacy students (β=0.405), followed by dental students (β =0.392) and medical students (β=0.195). Overall, the current admissions criteria explained only 25.5% of the variance in the students' early academic performance. While the ACT and HSGA were found to be predictive of students' early academic performance in health colleges at KSU, the APT was not a strong predictor. Since the combined current admissions criteria for the health science colleges at KSU were weak predictors of the variance in early academic performance, it may be necessary to consider noncognitive evaluation methods during the admission process.
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia.
To evaluate sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in health care professionals who are performing shift work. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 510 health care professionals at Prince Sultan Military Medical City and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Data were collected using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants were divided into 2 groups: shift workers and non-shift workers. Results: We compared both groups regarding the effect of shift work on the total score of PSQI and ESS. We found that the PSQI global score (p less than 0.001) and the total ESS score (p=0.003) were significantly higher in shift work health care professionals. Conclusion: Shift work among health care professionals is associated with poor sleep quality but not excessive daytime sleepiness. Health care professionals performing shift work have PSQI and ESS scores slightly higher than non-shift work health professionals.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of antibiotic prescription and dentists' awareness about the recent guidelines for antibiotic prescription.
Fertility levels and their determinants in Saudi Arabia have not been studied sufficiently for formulating family policy, although some attention has been paid to rapid fertility transitions in the context of socioeconomic and cultural change. This study focused on the fertility of a particular occupational category in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess determinants of fertility, measured as the number of children. The sample was drawn from the King Saud University staff - ever-married Saudi Arabian women. Results found that proximate factors (age, age at first marriage, intended number of children, length of marriage and contraceptive use) were significant in predicting fertility behaviour, whereas geographic, social and economic factors were insignificant. Thus, the fertility behaviour of this occupational group seems unique. This might be due to the special characteristics and lifestyle of this particular occupational group. The effect of the intended number of children on the actual number signified the fertility behaviour of this group of women. This, expectedly, should improve the influence of social and economic factors on fertility behaviour, in the future. Thus, advocates, policies and programmes (population and public health) at the societal and familial levels, should consider the demographic change in the social and economic context.
The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of living in Saudi Arabia on expatriate employees and their families' behavioural cardiovascular risk factors (BCVRFs), and to examine the association between changes in BCVRFs and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1437 individuals, aged ≥ 18 years, from King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the World Health Organization STEPS questionnaire to ask every participant questions about BCVRFs twice: (1) to reflect their period of living in Saudi Arabia and (2) to shed light upon life in their country of origin. Their mean age was 40.9 (11.7) years. The prevalence of BCVRFs was as follows: tobacco use in 156 (11%), physical inactivity in 1049 (73%) low intake of fruit and vegetables in 1264 (88%) and MetS in 378 (26%). Residing in Saudi Arabia had reduced physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables. There was also a significant increase in the fast food consumption. In conclusion, living in Saudi Arabia had a significant negative effect on BCVRFs. However, there was no statistically significant association between changes in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity and MetS status, except that intake of fast food was lower among participants with MetS.
To investigate asthma prevalence and to measure asthma symptoms among Saudi adults in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
To evaluate the association between psychological stress and skin symptoms among medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and June 2015. Electronic survey consists of Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) and Self-Reported Skin Complaints Questionnaire were distributed to all 1435 undergraduate students at College of Medicine, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: Final analysis was performed on data from 529 (36.9%) students. Students were divided into three groups: least stressed students, n=135, PSQ index less than 0.39; highly stressed students, n=136, PSQ index greater than 0.61; and moderately stressed students, n=258. Older age, female gender, during exam weeks, and fourth and fifth years of medical school (all p less than 0.01) were associated with the highest perceived stress levels. When compared to least stressed students, highly stressed students suffered from more oily, waxy patches or flakes on scalp (p≤0.0001), dry/sore rash (p≤0.0001), warts (p≤0.0001), pimples (p≤0.0001), itchy skin (p≤0.0001), hands itchy rash (p≤0.0001), hair loss (p≤0.0001), pull-out own hair (p=0.008), scaly skin (p=0.012), troublesome sweating (p=0.016), nails biting (p=0.028), and other rashes on face (p= 0.028). Conclusion: Various common skin conditions could appear in context of psychological stress among medical students.
To establish baseline sleep architecture during an acute attack of Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) in a cohort of Saudi Arabian KLS patients and compare these characteristics with other published cohorts. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of the polysomnographic characteristics of 10 typical symptomatic Saudi Arabian KLS patients attending the University Sleep Disorders Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2015. Data were captured by nocturnal polysomnography during an acute attack of hypersomnia and compared with other published cohorts identified via a systematic literature search. Results: Self-reported time asleep during episodes (11.1±6.7 hours) and recorded total sleep time (TST) (322.5±108.7 minutes) were generally shorter than other published cohorts. Sleep efficiency was poor at 75.0%±25.1%, with low relative amounts of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (16.5±5.9% of TST) and deep non-REM sleep (stage N3; 10.5±6.0% of TST) and high relative amounts of non-REM sleep (stage N1; 7.0±4.3% of TST). The sleep architecture of Saudi Arabian KLS patients was similar to other published cohorts. Conclusions: Sleep architecture of our cohort was relatively normal and broadly similar to other published studies, the main features being low sleep efficiency and low relative amounts of REM and stage N3 sleep. Time-course polysomnography studies with functional imaging may be useful to further establish the exact pathophysiology of this disease.
To determine the prevalence of dental erosion and its association to commonly used beverages and snacks among 3 to 5 year old preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.