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Concept: King Saud University

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of admissions criteria at King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to predict students' early academic performance at three health science colleges (medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy). A retrospective cohort study was conducted with data from the records of students enrolled in the three colleges from the 2008-09 to 2010-11 academic years. The admissions criteria-high school grade average (HSGA), aptitude test (APT) score, and achievement test (ACT) score-were the independent variables. The dependent variable was the average of students' first- and second-year grade point average (GPA). The results showed that the ACT was a better predictor of the students' early academic performance than the HSGA (β=0.368, β=0.254, respectively). No significant relationship was found between the APT and students' early academic performance (β=-0.019, p>0.01). The ACT was most predictive for pharmacy students (β=0.405), followed by dental students (β =0.392) and medical students (β=0.195). Overall, the current admissions criteria explained only 25.5% of the variance in the students' early academic performance. While the ACT and HSGA were found to be predictive of students' early academic performance in health colleges at KSU, the APT was not a strong predictor. Since the combined current admissions criteria for the health science colleges at KSU were weak predictors of the variance in early academic performance, it may be necessary to consider noncognitive evaluation methods during the admission process.

Concepts: Cohort study, Evaluation methods, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, House of Saud, Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, King Saud University, Aptitude

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Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are the most commonly used illicit drugs in Saudi Arabia. Frequency and outcome of ATS-related cardiovascular (CV) complications in the Saudi community have not been previously studied.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam, King Saud University

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To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of antibiotics (ABs) use and misuse among adults living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to participants from  March 2016 to January 2017 in the outpatient department of King Khalid University Hospital and Dental Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was divided into 4 sections. The first and second section inquired regarding demographic details and knowledge of ABs. The third section assessed practice of ABs and the fourth section assessed attitude of participants towards ABs use. Questionnaires were hand delivered to respondents using convenience sampling. Statistical analysis using frequency distributions and knowledge responses of AB resistance for ‘yes’ and ‘no’ were associated with participant characteristics using Chi-square test.  Results: A total of 1966 questionnaires were completed (response rate: 93.5%). Sixty-seven percent of the respondents were unaware of the meaning of ABs resistance. Sixty-seven percent of respondents were unaware of ABs being harmful for children’s teeth and 64.9% unaware of ABs that develop allergy and death.  Twenty-four percent believed that ABs worked on viruses, 31% on cold and 21% can cure cough. Almost 51% used ABs without physician prescription while 37.5% obtained ABs directly from pharmacists without physician’s prescription. Almost 42% participants discontinued ABs on alleviation of symptoms. There was significant difference in knowledge response of AB resistance and source of AB use (p=0.026), reason of AB use (p=0.038) and discontinuation of ABs (p=0.041). Conclusion: Adults showed insufficient knowledge and understanding regarding the safe use of ABs consumption among the population.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, House of Saud, Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, King Saud University, Fahd of Saudi Arabia

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To evaluate sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in health care professionals who are performing shift work. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 510 health care professionals at Prince Sultan Military Medical City and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Data were collected using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants were divided into 2 groups: shift workers and non-shift workers. Results: We compared both groups regarding the effect of shift work on the total score of PSQI and ESS. We found that the PSQI global score (p less than 0.001) and the total ESS score (p=0.003) were significantly higher in shift work health care professionals.  Conclusion: Shift work among health care professionals is associated with poor sleep quality but not excessive daytime sleepiness. Health care professionals performing shift work have PSQI and ESS scores slightly higher than non-shift work health professionals.

Concepts: Health care, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Mecca, House of Saud, Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, King Saud University, Fahd of Saudi Arabia

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To determine factors associated with different symptom domains among postmenopausal Saudi women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam, King Saud University

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To create a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed to capture the dietary habits of Saudis and test its validity and reliability. Methods: This investigation is a longitudinal, test-retest study conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and March 2016. A list of 140 food items was included in the questionnaire where a closed-ended and open-ended approach was used. Regarding past   year food frequency consumption and 24 hours dietary recall, body weight and height were collected. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, completeness of the food list, and criterion validity were assessed. Results: One-hundred and thirty eight participants were interviewed to complete the 24 hours dietary recall and the constructed questionnaire. Approximately 85% of the food items reported in the dietary recall were covered in the food frequency questionnaire. The association of body mass index with meats (regression coefficients: 2.28) and dairy products consumption frequency was statistically significant (regression coefficients: 2.31). A high overall reproducibility rate of the questionnaire was detected (Pearsons' correlation coefficient: 0.78 p less than 0.001).  Conclusion: The developed questionnaire has a high reliability and reasonable validity, and suitable for use in nutritional epidemiological investigations in Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Nutrition, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Psychometrics, Reliability, House of Saud, Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, King Saud University

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To evaluate the effectiveness of a specially-designed dental book (preparatory aid) on the behavior of a group of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Saudi children during their first dental visit to the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional double-blinded pre-and post clinical study consisting of 2 parts; a survey targeting the parents, and a clinical oral examination of their ASD children was conducted between January and June of 2016.  Results: A total of 40 children (75% males and 25% females) with an average age of 6.1 years were included. Approximately 47.5% children acted positively during the dental procedure. The dental book had a positive effect on the behavior of 37.5%  children according to their parents' evaluation and highly effective in enhancing the parents' dental knowledge (67.5%).  Conclusion: Parents expressed positive opinions regarding the use of preparatory aids in the dental environment. Approximately half of the ASD children benefit from the preparatory aid used according to the parents' opinion, and the follow up survey showed improvement in the parent’s dental knowledge and oral hygiene practices.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Autism, Autism spectrum, House of Saud, Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, King Saud University

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To compare the clinico-pathological features of collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) at a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia with the world literature. Methods: In a retrospective study, all biopsy-diagnosed cases of CG between 2004-2015 were identified and analyzed, at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh. The clinico-pathological findings along with prognosis were reviewed and compared with the reported literature.  Results: Thirty-one CG patients were identified, most were adult males. All the CG cases were idiopathic, all Arabs, none HIV positive, none of African descent, and none with a history of drug abuse. The number of glomeruli with collapsing lesions per biopsy ranged from 1 to 9. Other types of FSGS lesions (not otherwise specified and perihilar) were also noted. There was extensive podocyte effacement. Upon treatment, remission (complete/partial) was noted in almost half the patients; around one fourth did not respond to treatment; and one fourth progressed to end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The median time taken to develop ESKD from the time of biopsy diagnosis was 23 months. Conclusion: The clinico-pathological and prognostic correlates of CG in Saudi Arabia are comparable with that of the world literature. The management protocol at our center is the same as that practiced in different parts of the world, and the prognosis is overall poor.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, United Arab Emirates, Mecca, House of Saud, Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, King Saud University

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To investigate the prediction of long-term cardiometabolic risk using anthropometric and central obesity parameters.  Methods: A total of 390 Saudi subjects (men 42.8%) aged 18-50 years were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between August 2014 and  January 2016. All   participants were instructed to fast for 12 hours before taking blood samples for glucose and lipid panel analyses. A full anthropometric measurement and bioelectric impedance analysis was performed. The anthropometric and central obesity parameters were used for correlation with 30-year Framingham and life-time American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association risk scores. We used receiver operator characteristic curves to select the best predictors with the highest sensitivity and specificity. Results: The best discriminators of the long-term cardiometabolic risk among all the studied variables in men were the visceral adiposity index (VAI) (AUC=0.767), conicity index (CI) (AUC=0.817), and mid-arm muscular area (MAMA) (AUC=0.639). The best predictors for women were body mass index (AUC=0.912), waist circumference (AUC=0.752), and lipid accumulation product (AUC=0.632). The Kappa coefficient and 95% confidence interval ranged from 0.1 to 0.35, which suggests that there is a poor to fair agreement between these indices and cardiovascular risk scores.   Conclusion: Long-term cardiometabolic risk can be predicted using simple anthropometric and central obesity indices, and these discriminators were not the same in Saudi men and women.

Concepts: Obesity, Body mass index, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, House of Saud, Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, King Saud University

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To define the preferred nasolabial angle measurement in Middle Eastern population. An observational study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2016 at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1027 raters, 506 males, and 521 females were asked to choose the most ideal nasolabial angle for 5 males and 5 females lateral photographs whose nasolabial angle were modified with Photoshop into the following angles (85°, 90°, 95°, 100°, 105°, and 110°). Male raters preferred the angle of 89.5° ± 3.5° (mean ± SD) for males and 90.8° ± 5.6° for females. While female raters preferred the angle of 89.3° ± 3.8° for males and 90.5° ± 4.8° for females. ANOVA test compare means among groups: p: 0.342, and there is no statistically significant difference between groups. The results of our study showed an even more acute angles than degrees found in the literature. It shows that what young generation in our region prefers and clearly reflects that what could be explained as under rotation of the nasal tip in other cultures is just the ideal for some Middle Eastern population.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Middle East, House of Saud, Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, King Saud University