SciCombinator

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Concept: Ketone

196

Ketone bodies are the most energy-efficient fuel and yield more ATP per mole of substrate than pyruvate and increase the free energy released from ATP hydrolysis. Elevation of circulating ketones via high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets has been used for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy and for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease. Ketones may also be beneficial for muscle and brain in times of stress, such as endurance exercise. The challenge has been to raise circulating ketone levels by using a palatable diet without altering lipid levels. We found that blood ketone levels can be increased and cholesterol and triglycerides decreased by feeding rats a novel ketone ester diet: chow that is supplemented with ®-3-hydroxybutyl ®-3-hydroxybutyrate as 30% of calories. For 5 d, rats on the ketone diet ran 32% further on a treadmill than did control rats that ate an isocaloric diet that was supplemented with either corn starch or palm oil (P < 0.05). Ketone-fed rats completed an 8-arm radial maze test 38% faster than did those on the other diets, making more correct decisions before making a mistake (P < 0.05). Isolated, perfused hearts from rats that were fed the ketone diet had greater free energy available from ATP hydrolysis during increased work than did hearts from rats on the other diets as shown by using [(31)P]-NMR spectroscopy. The novel ketone diet, therefore, improved physical performance and cognitive function in rats, and its energy-sparing properties suggest that it may help to treat a range of human conditions with metabolic abnormalities.-Murray, A. J., Knight, N. S., Cole, M. A., Cochlin, L. E., Carter, E., Tchabanenko, K., Pichulik, T., Gulston, M. K., Atherton, H. J., Schroeder, M. A., Deacon, R. M. J., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T., Pawlosky, R., Rawlins, J. N. P., Tyler, D. J., Griffin, J. L., Robertson, J., Veech, R. L., Clarke, K. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance.

Concepts: Lipid, Metabolism, Nutrition, Adenosine triphosphate, Fatty acid, Ketone bodies, Ketone, Carbohydrate

42

Elite athletes and coaches are in a constant search for training methods and nutritional strategies to support training and recovery efforts that may ultimately maximize athletes' performance. Recently, there has been a re-emerging interest in the role of ketone bodies in exercise metabolism, with considerable media speculation about ketone body supplements being routinely used by professional cyclists. Ketone bodies can serve as an important energy substrate under certain conditions, such as starvation, and can modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Dietary strategies to increase endogenous ketone body availability (i.e., a ketogenic diet) require a diet high in lipids and low in carbohydrates for ~4 days to induce nutritional ketosis. However, a high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet may impair exercise performance via reducing the capacity to utilize carbohydrate, which forms a key fuel source for skeletal muscle during intense endurance-type exercise. Recently, ketone body supplements (ketone salts and esters) have emerged and may be used to rapidly increase ketone body availability, without the need to first adapt to a ketogenic diet. However, the extent to which ketone bodies regulate skeletal muscle bioenergetics and substrate metabolism during prolonged endurance-type exercise of varying intensity and duration remains unknown. Therefore, at present there are no data available to suggest that ingestion of ketone bodies during exercise improves athletes' performance under conditions where evidence-based nutritional strategies are applied appropriately.

Concepts: Fat, Glycogen, Ketosis, Ketone, Nutrition, Ketone bodies, Carbohydrate, Metabolism

29

The process of lipid peroxidation is emerging as an important mechanism that mediates the post-translational modification of proteins. Through advanced analytical techniques, lipidomics is now emerging as a critical factor in our understanding of the pathology of a broad range of diseases. RECENT ADVANCES: During enzymatic or nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation, the simple structure of an unsaturated fatty acid is converted to an oxylipidome, many members of which are electrophilic and form the reactive lipid species (RLS). This aspect of lipid biology is particularly important, as it directly connects lipidomics with proteomics through the post-translational modification of a sub-proteome in the cell. This arises, because the electrophilic members of the oxylipidome react with proteins at nucleophilic amino-acid residues and so change their structure and function to form electrophile-responsive proteomes (ERP).

Concepts: Biochemistry, Ketone, Proteome, Fatty acid, Metabolism, Unsaturated fat, Amino acid, Protein

28

Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) is used for detection of alcohol abuse and follow-up. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of transferrin glycoforms is highly specific for identification of alcohol abuse, but unresolved disialo- and trisialotransferrin glycoforms sometimes makes interpretation difficult. The cause of this phenomenon is unknown, cannot be explained by genetic variants of transferrin, but seems to be associated with liver disease.

Concepts: Specific Identification, Ketone, Alcohol, Carbohydrate deficient transferrin, Chromatography, Chemical pathology, Alcoholism, High performance liquid chromatography

28

The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of a direct analysis technique (SIFT-MS) to measure the lipid oxidation process in beef meat packed under high oxygen atmosphere and compare it to conventional techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and TBARS values. Meat samples from two suppliers were selected and packaged under the same atmosphere conditions. The fatty acid content, the physicochemical (TBARS and volatile compounds) and sensory parameters were measured. The samples from supplier 2 had a highest content of PUFA and n6 fatty acids that was related with a highest oxidation during storage. SIFT-MS and SPME-GC-MS detected a significant increase for most of the volatiles compounds analyzed during storage especially, in aldehyde compounds. High correlation coefficients between TBARS values and linear aldehydes (C3-C7) measured by both techniques were obtained and this indicates that SIFT-MS can be used to monitor lipid oxidation changes.

Concepts: Volatile, Beef, Hydrogen, Volatile organic compound, Carbon dioxide, Ketone, Alcohol, Hydrogenation

28

Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) represents an active form of Vitamin B6 that shows relatively fast imine formation with hydrazines under physiological conditions without the need of a catalyst. A convenient phosphate/amine conjugation protocol was developed to covalently link PLP to proteins, affording proteins capable of hydrazone formation with bioorthogonal hydrazinyl functional groups. Thus, the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A) was labeled with PLP. Pretreatment with fluorescein hydrazide gave dye-labeled Con A that labeled cell surfaces efficiently. Alternatively, pretargeting was achieved by labeling cells with Con A-PLP, then treatment in vitro with Alexa Fluor 488 hydrazide.

Concepts: Vitamin B6, Functional groups, Aldehyde, Lectin, Functional group, Ketone, Concanavalin A, Proteins

27

The photo-thermal tautomerization processes between enol and keto forms of 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (trade name, avobenzone) in acetonitrile has been studied by steady-state and laser flash photolysis. The keto form is produced upon photolysis of the enol in only acetonitrile with a quantum yield of 0.014. The molar absorptivity of the keto form was determined. Phototautomerization from the keto to the enol form was not seen. Laser flash photolysis of the keto form recognized the formation of the triplet state. In the dark, the keto form underwent thermal tautomerization to the enol with a lifetime of 5.1 h at 295 K. The enolization rate in acetonitrile was not accelerated by the presence of alcohols and/or water, but increased with increasing temperature and followed the Arrhenius expression. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined for the enolization process from the keto to the enol form. Based on the energy states of the tautomers and isomers as estimated by DFT calculations, a schematic energy diagram was determined for the photo-thermal tautomerization processes in acetonitrile.

Concepts: Ketone, Enol, Arrhenius equation, Energy, Quantum mechanics, Thermodynamics, Tautomer, Keto-enol tautomerism

27

A new method for ketone enolate C-acylation is described which utilizes alkyl pentafluorophenylcarbonates, thiocarbonates, and thionocarbonates as the reactive acylating agents, and MgBr(2)·Et(2)O, DMAP, and i-Pr(2)NEt as the reagents for enolization. A wide range of ketones have been observed to undergo clean C-acylation via this protocol.

Concepts: Ketone bodies, Alkane, Aldehyde, Enol, Ketone, Functional groups, Carbonyl, Keto-enol tautomerism

26

A highly efficient molecular iodine mediated formal [3 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition reaction for the direct synthesis of substituted quinolines from methyl ketones, arylamines, and styrenes is developed. The methyl group of the methyl ketone represents uniquely reactive input in the Povarov reaction. A self-sequenced iodination/Kornblum oxidation/Povarov/aromatization mechanism has been proposed as a possible reaction sequence to account for the results observed in this study.

Concepts: Oxygen, Cycloadditions, Functional groups, Imine, Quinoline, Povarov reaction, Ketone, Alkyne

26

A series of α-ketooxazoles containing heteroatoms embedded within conformational constraints in the C2 acyl side chain of 2 (OL-135) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The studies reveal that the installation of a heteroatom (O) in the conformational constraint is achievable, although the potency of these novel derivatives is reduced slightly relative to 2 and the analogous 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene series. Interestingly, both enantiomers (R and S) of the candidate inhibitors bearing a chiral center adjacent to the electrophilic carbonyl were found to effectively inhibit FAAH.

Concepts: Ketone, Amine, Ester, Carbonyl