Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Keratosis pilaris


Abstract Background: Keratosis pilaris (KP) is a very common disorder; yet, very few treatment options are available. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of KP. Materials and methods: Eighteen patients with untreated KP on the upper outer arms were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. One arm was treated with long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser at 30 msec pulse width and fluence of 34 J/cm(2), while the contralateral arm served as control. Patients received three consecutive treatments at 4-week intervals. Three blinded dermatologists assessed digital photographs using a quartile grading system to separately rate global improvement, erythema and the number of keratotic papules. Results: Seventeen patients completed the study. There were statistically significant improvements in global assessment, erythema and the number of keratotic papules at 4 weeks after the last treatment (p < 0.05). All patients also stated that their lesions improved and were satisfied with the laser treatment. Conclusion: Long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser has been shown to improve KP in Thai patients compared with control after three treatment sessions.

Concepts: Better, Clinical trial, Improve, Randomized controlled trial, Laser, Clinical research, Keratosis pilaris, Laser hair removal


Ingenol mebutate is the main active constituent of sap from the plant Euphorbia peplus, which has traditionally been used as a home remedy for various skin conditions. Ingenol mebutate gel is approved in the US, EU, Australia and Brazil for the topical treatment of actinic keratosis. A short course of field-directed therapy with topical ingenol mebutate gel was effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses on the face or scalp (ingenol mebutate gel 0.015% once daily for 3 consecutive days) and on the trunk or extremities (ingenol mebutate gel 0.05% once daily for 2 consecutive days), according to the results of four randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicentre studies. Significantly higher complete clearance rates (primary endpoint) and partial clearance rates were seen at day 57 in patients receiving ingenol mebutate gel than in those receiving vehicle gel. Treatment with ingenol mebutate gel was generally associated with sustained clearance of actinic keratoses in the longer term. Topical ingenol mebutate gel was generally well tolerated in the treatment of patients with actinic keratoses on the face or scalp and on the trunk or extremities. Application-site conditions were the most commonly occurring adverse events.

Concepts: Euphorbia, Actinic keratosis, Keratosis, Keratosis pilaris


Abstract Background: Although hyperseborrhea, follicular hyperkeratinization, Propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation are found to be responsible in the pathogenesis of acne, the exact mechanisms are unknown. Vitamin A and E are basic antioxidants vital for health. Zinc is also an essential element for human. But these parameters of the effects on skin are not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate plasma levels of vitamin A, E and zinc in acne patients in relation to the severity of the disease. Material and method: There were 94 acne patients who were referred to our clinic, all new diagnosed, and 56 age and sex matched healthy volunteers as control group. All patients are assessed according to Global Acne Grading System and grouped as mild, moderate, severe and very severe. Acne patients further grouped as group 1 consist of patients with mild to moderate disease; and group 2 consist of patients with severe to very severe acne. The patients with the controls and group 1 with group 2 was compared. Results: The level of vitamin E, vitamin A and zinc were significantly lower than the control group (Table 1,p < 0.001). When the patient group is compared among each other there was no statistically significant difference for plasma vitamin A levels between group 1 and 2 whereas vitamin E and zinc levels were significantly low in group 2 than group 1. Thus there was a negative correlation between acne severity and vitamin E and zinc levels. Conclusion: Our study marks the importance of diet in patients with acne. We offer supportive dietary measures with foods rich in vitamin A and E and zinc in the acne prophylaxis and treatment. Supportive treatment with these vitamins and zinc in severe acne may lead to satisfactory results.

Concepts: Nutrition, Dietary mineral, Zinc, Vitamins, Acne vulgaris, Propionibacterium acnes, Vitamin A, Keratosis pilaris



Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I-III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included.

Concepts: Skin, Salicylic acid, Acne vulgaris, Keratin, Stratum corneum, Keratosis pilaris, Hyperpigmentation, Azelaic acid


Abnormal hyperkeratinization in sebaceous hair follicles has long been believed to play an important role in acne pathogenesis. Several early reports purported to provide histological evidence for hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in acne lesions by showing a higher expression of the Ki67 as well as certain keratins. The evidence is, however, not robust and a number of methodological and technical pitfalls can be identified in these studies. In this study we looked at the expression of proliferation, mitosis and apoptosis markers directly at acne skin lesions in 66 patients with acne vulgaris. Ki67 was assessed using immunohistochemistry and ⍺-tubulin, phospho-histone H3 and cleaved-PARP with immunofluorescence microscopy. Allogenic unaffected hair follicles from the same acne patients were used as an internal control. In both acne and control hair follicles the α-tubulin staining was universal, approaching 100% cells and showed no signs of changed assembly. Expression of cleaved-PARP - the apoptosis marker was a rare event. Cell proliferation rate measured by the expression of Ki67 and phospho-histone H3 was virtually identical between acne and the two control groups. Our findings show the absence of increased keratinocyte proliferation in acne vulgaris. Alternative mechanisms are likely responsible for infundibular hyperkeratinization in acne pathogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Anatomical pathology, Cell cycle, Acne vulgaris, Hair follicle, Copyright, Sebaceous gland, Keratosis pilaris, Hyperkeratinization


Scarring is an unfortunate clinical outcome of acne. Current treatment options for atrophic acne scars are dominated by non-pharmacological, invasive procedures which may not be suitable or affordable to all patients. This phase II, single-center, open-label, exploratory study assessed the efficacy, safety and subject-reported outcomes of adapalene 0.3% gel in the treatment of atrophic acne scars.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Scar, Collagen, Outcome, Acne vulgaris, Keloid, Adapalene, Keratosis pilaris


Keratosis pilaris (KP) is a common skin finding that presents as follicular hyperkeratotic papules on the proximal extremities in patients with a propensity for atopy. Although often asymptomatic, the stippled appearance is cosmetically disturbing to patients and difficult to treat as current therapies are limited in availability and efficacy. Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to be essential in basic systemic and cutaneous physiologic function, specifically in terms of its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties, which evolutionarily was maintained by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). As modern hygiene practices have improved, there has been a gradual loss of cutaneous AOB and, therefore, the availability of an important source of human physiologic NO. We propose that restoring this dermal microflora with a purified strain of AOB, Nitrosomonas eutropha (D23), may reduce the overall cutaneous inflammatory state and, thus, be a potential therapeutic option for improving the cosmetic appearance of a skin condition such as KP which is often found in association with xerosis and atopic dermatitis. Clinical trial registry number: NCT03243617

J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(3):285-288.


Concepts: Inflammation, Medicine, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Atopy, Skin, Anti-inflammatory, Keratosis pilaris


Acne treatment guidelines suggest a combination approach with topical therapy including a topical retinoid, benzoyl peroxide and an oral antibiotic, or oral isotretinoin (OI), as first-line treatment options for severe acne vulgaris (AV). This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a daily regimen of 0.3% adapalene and 2.5% benzoyl peroxide (0.3% A/BPO) gel and oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily in severe (nonnodulocystic, non-conglobate) inflammatory AV.

Concepts: Inflammation, Acne vulgaris, Doxycycline, Adapalene, Retinoid, Rosacea, Isotretinoin, Keratosis pilaris


The current work was attempted to formulate and evaluate the topical sustained release delivery systems potential of bicontinuous cubic monoglyceride -water phases - ‘cubosomes’ containing Tretinoin with an opinion to sustain the release of drug in the acne treatment.

Concepts: The Current, Acne vulgaris, Retinol, Sustain, Tretinoin, Keratosis pilaris