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Concept: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca


Lifitegrast is an integrin antagonist that decreases T-cell-mediated inflammation associated with dry eye disease (DED). We report the results of OPUS-2, a phase III study evaluating the efficacy and safety of lifitegrast compared with placebo for the treatment of DED.

Concepts: Rheumatoid arthritis, Eye, Ophthalmology, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Eye disease


In 2014, the overall rate of smartphone use in Korea was 83 and 89.8 % in children and adolescents. The rate of smartphone use differs according to region (urban vs. rural) and age (younger grade vs. older grade). We investigated risk and protective factors associated with pediatric dry eye disease (DED) in relation to smartphone use rate according to region and age.

Concepts: Experimental design, Epidemiology, Death, Ophthalmology, Case-control study, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Eye disease


To provide current estimates of the prevalence of diagnosed dry eye disease (DED) and associated demographics among US adults aged ≥18 years.

Concepts: Death, United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Ophthalmology, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Eye disease


PURPOSE: To determine the type and distribution of ocular conditions cared for in a clinic dedicated to scleral devices and to report the clinical outcomes afforded by this approach. METHODS: Fifty-one charts of patients fitted unilaterally or bilaterally with a scleral device (Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem - PROSE) in a two year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, ocular diagnoses, associated systemic conditions, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before and after fitting, Visual Function Questionnaire score (VFQ-25), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score were collected. RESULTS: All 51 patients were successfully wearing the PROSE device for a period of anywhere from weeks to years. The most common reasons for fitting were to relieve symptoms of moderate to severe dry eye syndrome (“DES”, n=25), management of refractive problems (“refractive”, n=23) with keratoconus being the most common (n=14), and to manage other anomalies (“other”, n=3). Best corrected visual acuity (logMAR) improved with the wearing of the PROSE device for both the DES (17 letters) and the refractive group (10 letters), but not the “other” group. No serious complications were recorded for any of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The PROSE device is a useful option not only for the management of ocular surface disease and optical imperfections, but also for other ophthalmic conditions. Moderate to severe dry eye was the most common anomaly managed, followed by eyes with irregular corneal astigmatism. DES and refractive patients experienced improvement in visual acuity with wearing of the PROSE device.

Concepts: Eye, Visual acuity, Ophthalmology, Contact lens, Anomaly, Refractive error, Tears, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca


Abstract Aim: To compare collared silicone punctal plugs to intracanalicular SmartPlugs for the treatment of moderate to severe dry eye. Materials and methods: In this prospective, randomized, single blind, clinical study, 30 patients (60 eyes) who had been diagnosed with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome were enrolled. Study group I (n = 30 eyes) received collared silicone punctal plugs and group II (n = 30 eyes) received intracanalicular SmartPlugs. Data for the Schirmer I test, tear break-up time, vital staining, subjective symptoms and frequency of artificial tear application were recorded at baseline and 3 months after punctal occlusion. Results: There was no statistical significant difference for these values between group I and II. Conclusions: Although published data show free flow with irrigation and probing after SmartPlug insertion, the clinical effect in the treatment of dry eye appears to be the equally well to collared silicone punctal plugs. It seems likely that difference of design and localization between the treatment groups were of minor importance concerning impeding of natural and supplemental moisture.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Statistical significance, Eye, Ophthalmology, Sjögren's syndrome, Tears, Corneal ulcer, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca


Dry eye disease is a common ocular surface disease that significantly affects the quality of life. Little is known about a potential impact of the disease on corneal morphology. This study was carried out to investigate for the first time if dry eye disease induces changes in corneal density and thickness.

Concepts: Life, Eye, Ophthalmology, Tears, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Eye disease, The First Time


Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the normal inter-day and intra-day variations in tear film osmolarity and the tear fluorescein clearance test (T-FCT) in healthy subjects. Methods: Tear samples from 24 young, healthy adults were collected from 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM (midday) and 5:00 PM to 7:00 PM (evening) on three non-consecutive days. Tear osmolarity measurement and the T-FCT were performed to assess the basal values and inter-day and intra-day variations of the test results. A freezing point depression osmometer was used to analyze the tear osmolarity, and the T-FCT was performed using a fluorophotometer. Results: The mean osmolarity value was 270 ± 4.4 mOsm/l and the mean T-FCT result was 2.97 ± 0.17 fluorescence arbitrary units. The inter-day or intra-day tear osmolarity values did not differ significantly. The T-FCT results varied significantly during the day, with significantly (p = 0.0004) higher results in the evening; no significant differences were found in the inter-day analysis. Conclusions: Tear osmolarity was unaffected by intra-day variations; however, the T-FCT showed an inter-day variation, which indicated that the time of day when the test is performed must be considered when it is used to evaluate the diagnosis of dry eye disease, disease progression or therapeutic effectiveness.

Concepts: Eye, Tears, Corneal ulcer, Melting point, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Freezing-point depression, Eye disease, 12-hour clock


To assess the efficacy and safety of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% compared with placebo in subjects with dry eye disease.

Concepts: Eye, Ophthalmology, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Eye disease


The objective of this clinical trial (NCT02507934) was to assess the efficacy and safety of recombinant human lubricin as compared to a 0.18% sodium hyaluronate (HA) eye drop in subjects with moderate dry eye disease (DED).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Death, Effectiveness, Ophthalmology, Eye drop, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Eye disease


Dry eye disease (DED) is a growing public health concern causing ocular discomfort, fatigue and visual disturbance that interferes with quality of life (QoL), including aspects of physical, social, psychological functioning, daily activities and workplace productivity. This paper assesses the current understanding of the impact of DED on QoL and vision. The full impact of DED on a patient’s QoL is not easily quantifiable, but several methods and techniques have been evaluated to measure the decreased quality of vision from DED, and a number of questionnaires have been developed to quantify the impact of DED on various aspects of patient QoL. We summarize available evidence on the impact of DED based on a review of published literature.

Concepts: Death, Quality, Eye, Visual perception, Visual system, Ophthalmology, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Eye disease