Concept: Keith Jarrett
This study examined the longitudinal association between birth of a sibling and changes in body mass index z-score (BMIz) trajectory during the first 6 years of life.
Data availability expectations have changed over the years in scientific publishing, nowhere more so than in the field of genomics. This field has spearheaded openness and transparency via public and structured deposition of data. BMC Genomics strongly encourages deposition and unrestricted availability of all primary data underlying research studies both as a way of ensuring reproducibility and standardisation, but also as part of overall community-driven expectation on data deposition and sharing.With funders and publishers moving towards more explicit mandates (regarding data availability), we examined the current barriers to unrestricted availability of data and explored different scenarios in which commercial agreements might run contrary to scientific convention and data sharing policies. In this editorial, Ross Tellam (CSIRO, Australia), Paul Rushton (Texas A&M AgriLife Research) and Peter Schuerman (University of California, Merced), give their views on the importance of data sharing and examine the current challenges in research fields like crop and livestock genomics, where often it is necessary to integrate the interests of academic and commercial stakeholders. We discuss the current approaches, highlight the importance of community-driven standards, and propose ways forward.
Information in the popular media tends to be biased toward promoting the benefits of medicalized birth for low-risk pregnancies. We aimed to assess the effect of communicating the benefits of non-medicalized birth in magazine articles on women’s birth intentions and to identify the mechanisms by which social communication messages affected women’s intentions for birth. A convenience sample of 180 nulliparous Australian women aged 18-35 years were randomly exposed to a magazine article endorsing non-medicalized birth (using either celebrity or non-celebrity endorsement) or organic eating (control) throughout June-July 2011. Magazine articles that endorsed non-medicalized birth targeted perceived risk of birth, expectations for labor and birth, and attitudes toward birth. These variables and intention for birth were assessed by self-report before and after exposure. Exposure to a magazine article that endorsed non-medicalized birth significantly reduced women’s intentions for a medicalized birth, regardless of whether endorsement was by celebrities or non-celebrities. Changes in perceived risk of birth mediated the effect of magazine article exposure on women’s intentions for a medicalized birth. Persuasive communication that endorses non-medicalized birth could be delivered at the population level and may reduce women’s intentions for a medicalized birth.
Although expectations are key theoretical antecedents of emotion and behavior, expectations are typically examined as static properties without deep consideration of their temporal dynamics. We surveyed residents of California over five time points, during the month preceding a public ballot initiative on cannabis legalization (California Proposition 19) and after the election, to examine both the causes and the consequences of residents' expectation trajectories regarding the vote’s outcome. Our results point to the importance of changes in individuals' expectations over time. Specifically, well-informed voters were likely to lower their expectations regarding the measure’s passage as the vote neared, in line with polling results, but being informed about the initiative had less impact on expectation trajectories among voters who favored the measure than among those who opposed it. Furthermore, supporters who maintained their optimism about the initiative’s outcome over time were more likely to vote and were more disappointed following the measure’s failure, compared with supporters who became more pessimistic. The findings suggest that temporal changes in people’s optimism and expectations play a unique role in social behavior.
To describe the early hemodynamic changes after fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FAV) for evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome due to mid-gestational aortic stenosis and to assess whether these early changes predict biventricular (BiV) circulation at neonatal discharge.
Ongoing quality management is an essential part of biobank operations and the creation of high quality biospecimen resources. Adhering to the standards of a national biobanking network is a way to reduce variability between individual biobank processes, resulting in cross biobank compatibility and more consistent support for health researchers. The Canadian Tissue Repository Network (CTRNet) implemented a set of required operational practices (ROPs) in 2011 and these serve as the standards and basis for the CTRNet biobank certification program. A review of these 13 ROPs covering 314 directives was conducted after 5 years to identify areas for revision and update, leading to changes to 7/314 directives (2.3%). A review of all internal controlled documents (including policies, standard operating procedures and guides, and forms for actions and processes) used by the BC Cancer Agency’s Tumor Tissue Repository (BCCA-TTR) to conform to these ROPs was then conducted. Changes were made to 20/106 (19%) of BCCA-TTR documents. We conclude that a substantial fraction of internal controlled documents require updates at regular intervals to accommodate changes in best practices. Reviewing documentation is an essential aspect of keeping up to date with best practices and ensuring the quality of biospecimens and data managed by biobanks.
Maintaining competence is a professional responsibility for nurses. Individual nurses are accountable for their practice, as outlined in the American Nurses Association’s Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice. Nurses across clinical settings face the sometimes daunting challenge of staying abreast of regulatory mandates, practice changes, equipment updates, and other workplace expectations. In the complex, evolving perioperative setting, professional development is a priority, and the need for ongoing education is critical. However, nurses' efforts to engage in their own development can be hampered by a lack of time, limited access to educational resources, or cost concerns. This article provides an overview of nursing professional development and offers some resources to help individual nurses maintain or enhance their knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
To test the hypothesis that higher childhood cognitive ability is associated with reduced risk of decline in physical capability in late midlife.
In Japan, the revision of the fee schedules in 2006 introduced a new category of general care ward for more advanced care, with a higher staffing standard, a patient-to-nurse ratio of 7:1. Previous studies have suggested that these changes worsened inequalities in the geographic distribution of nurses, but there have been few quantitative studies evaluating this effect. This study aimed to investigate the association between the distribution of 7:1 beds and the geographic distribution of hospital nursing staffs.
- The first major project of the American College of Surgeons (Chicago, Illinois), founded in 1913, was implementing Minimum Standards for Hospitals. The 1918 standard (1) established medical staff organizations in hospitals; (2) restricted membership to licensed practitioners in good standing; (3) mandated that the medical staff work with hospital administration to develop and adopt regulations and policies governing their professional work; (4) required standardized, accessible medical records; and (5) required availability of diagnostic and therapeutic facilities. One hundred years ago, these were radical expectations.