Concept: Jugular vein
Recent evidence has indicated an association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis. Small internal jugular veins (IJVs) (with a cross-sectional area of less than 0.4 cm2) have been previously described as difficult to catheterize, and their presence may potentially affect cerebrospinal venous drainage. In this blinded extracranial color-Doppler study we had two principal aims: first, to assess prevalence of CCSVI among Serbian MS patients compared to healthy controls; and second, to assess prevalence of small IJVs (with a CSA <= 0.4 cm2) among MS patients and controls.
The use of ultrasound (US) has been proposed to reduce the number of complications and to increase the safety and quality of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. In this review, we describe the rationale for the use of US during CVC placement, the basic principles of this technique, and the current evidence and existing guidelines for its use. In addition, we recommend a structured approach for US-guided central venous access for clinical practice. Static and real-time US can be used to visualize the anatomy and patency of the target vein in a short-axis and a long-axis view. US-guided needle advancement can be performed in an “out-of-plane” and an “in-plane” technique. There is clear evidence that US offers gains in safety and quality during CVC placement in the internal jugular vein. For the subclavian and femoral veins, US offers small gains in safety and quality. Based on the available evidence from clinical studies, several guidelines from medical societies strongly recommend the use of US for CVC placement in the internal jugular vein. Data from survey studies show that there is still a gap between the existing evidence and guidelines and the use of US in clinical practice. For clinical practice, we recommend a six-step systematic approach for US-guided central venous access that includes assessing the target vein (anatomy and vessel localization, vessel patency), using real-time US guidance for puncture of the vein, and confirming the correct needle, wire, and catheter position in the vein. To achieve the best skill level for CVC placement the knowledge from anatomic landmark techniques and the knowledge from US-guided CVC placement need to be combined and integrated.
Fusobacterium necrophorum causes various clinical syndromes, ranging from otitis media to life-threatening Lemierre’s syndrome. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with pediatric Fusobacterium infections. The medical records of all children aged 0 to 18 years who were diagnosed between 1999 and 2011 with Fusobacterium infection were reviewed. Fusobacterium was isolated from clinical samples of 27 children: blood cultures (n = 16), abscesses (n = 8), joint fluids (n = 2), and cerebrospinal fluid (n = 1). The median age at admission was 3.5 years (range, 7 months to 17 years). Eight children (30 %) had seizures at presentation. Ten children (37 %) underwent lumbar puncture. Fifteen children (56 %) underwent brain imaging, and in seven of these children, a thrombus was identified either in a sinus vein or in an internal jugular vein. The most common source of infection was otogenic in 19 (70 %) of the children. Six of the children presented in 2011. All patients recovered. Conclusions: Neurologic manifestations are common at presentation of children with Fusobacterium infections. In young children, the most common source of infection is otogenic. Thrombotic complications are common, and imaging should be considered in all children with Fusobacterium infections arising from the head or neck region. There was a recent increase in the isolation of this bacterium, either because of better culturing techniques and increased awareness to this entity or a true increase in infections due to this organism.
A 15-year-old boy presented with signs of sepsis and a history of sore throat, fevers and shortness of breath. Full examination revealed an erythematous oropharynx and mild tonsillar swelling. He rapidly deteriorated requiring admission to intensive care. Blood cultures grew Fusobacterium necrophorum and an ultrasound scan performed for left neck tenderness confirmed internal jugular vein thrombosis. He was diagnosed with Lemierre’s syndrome. This condition results from pharyngitis or tonsillitis with bacterial spread to the lateral pharyngeal space. Internal jugular vein thrombosis ensues with septic emboli and metastatic infections that most frequently involve the lungs. Although increasing in incidence, diagnosis is often delayed. We discuss why and describe its clinical presentation, investigations of choice and treatment strategies.
Carotid puncture and insertion of a large-bore catheter into the carotid artery is a feared complication associated with internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation. The use of ultrasound with real-time imaging of the neck vessels during needle insertion has the potential to decrease the incidence of serious complications associated with central venous access. The authors describe a new technique for ultrasound-guided IJV cannulation. The suggested “medial-oblique” approach allows for optimal imaging of the IJV and the carotid artery side by side and following the needle throughout the insertion from skin to vessel penetration in a medial-cephalad to lateral-caudad direction. This technique combines the advantages of the short-axis and long-axis approaches and minimizes the risk of carotid puncture from a medial-to-lateral needle direction.
We present a case of a patient with Lemierre’s syndrome caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum who developed a right frontal lobe brain abscess. We summarise the epidemiology, microbiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, complications, therapy, and outcomes of Lemierre’s syndrome. F necrophorum is most commonly associated with Lemierre’s syndrome: a septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. Patients usually present with an exudative tonsillitis, sore throat, dysphagia, and unilateral neck pain. Diagnosis of septic thrombophlebitis is best confirmed by obtaining a CT scan of the neck with contrast. Complications of the disease include bacteraemia with septic abscesses to the lungs, joints, liver, peritoneum, kidneys, and brain. Treatment should include a prolonged course of intravenous beta-lactam antibiotic plus metronidazole.
A 33-year-old woman who had received a diagnosis of tricuspid valve endocarditis caused by MRSA was evaluated for replacement of the tricuspid valve. Videos show giant systolic pulsations during jugular venous examination and severe tricuspid regurgitation during transthoracic ECG.
A 65-year-old man presented with an abrupt onset of heart palpitations and dyspnea during the previous hour. He had had three similar episodes but had no other known conditions. Examination of the jugular venous pulsation revealed cannon atrial waves, shown in a video.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients frequently suffer from headaches and fatigue, and many reports have linked headaches with intracranial and/or extracranial venous obstruction. We therefore designed a study involving MS patients diagnosed with obstructive disease of internal jugular veins (IJVs), with the aim of evaluating the impact of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on headache and fatigue indicators.
The quantification of the flow returning from the head through the cervical veins and the collaterals of the internal jugular vein (IJV), is becoming of prominent interest in clinical practice. We developed a novel model to calculate the cerebral venous return, normalized to the arterial inflow, in the different segments of the IJV.