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Concept: Joinville

295

Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil.

Concepts: Biodiversity, Atlantic Ocean, Forest, Brazil, Montane, Florianópolis, German Brazilian, Joinville

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A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395-1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America.

Concepts: Chronology, House, Radiocarbon dating, Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, German Brazilian, Joinville, Yaodong

24

Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances.

Concepts: Biodiversity, Conservation biology, Organism, Atlantic Ocean, Endangered species, Brazil, Florianópolis, Joinville

9

A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from the Atlantic Forest of northeastern state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Nine specimens (eight adults and a juvenile) were collected from the leaf litter of montane forests 790-835 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The new species is a member of the pernix group by its bufoniform shape and the absence of dermal co-ossification and is distinguished from all its congeners by a combination of its general coloration (dorsal region of head, dorsum, legs, arms, and flanks light, brownish green to dark, olive green, with darker region in the middle of the dorsum and a white line along the vertebral column in most specimens) and by its smooth dorsum. The geographical distribution of the new species is highly reduced (extent of occurrence estimated as 25.04 ha, or possibly 34.37 ha). In addition, its habitat has experienced some level of degradation, raising concerns about the future conservation of the species. Preliminary density estimates suggest one calling individual every 3-4 m(2) at 815-835 m a.s.l. and every 100 m(2) at 790 m a.s.l. Together with the recently described B. boticario and B. fuscolineatus, the new species is among the southernmost species of Brachycephalus known to date.

Concepts: Biodiversity, Vertebral column, Atlantic Ocean, Forest, Brazil, Montane, Florianópolis, Joinville

3

The Tuberculosis (TB) notification rates are 5 to 81 times higher in prisons worldwide when compared to the general population. The state of Santa Catarina (SC) has few epidemiological data regarding TB in prisons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains in prisons of SC. The study comprised 95 clinical samples from six prisons. Among the cases included, all subjects were male, predominantly caucasians, and young adults, with low education level. The positive smear in the TB diagnosis comprised 62.0% of cases. About 50% of subjects had some condition associated with TB. The Spoligotyping results showed that the most frequent lineages were LAM (50.7%), T (22.2%) and S (11.6%). The 12-loci MIRU generated 62 different genotypes. The MSTs showed evolutionary relationships between Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotypes from SC and evolutionary relationships between the prison isolates and studied parameters. This first study on TB in prison units of SC highlighted the predominance of SIT216/LAM5, and SIT34/S. Interestingly, his profile was found to be different from that observed in a previous study performed with the state’s general population. This data shows the need for continued surveillance of episodes of TB occurring among prison inmates in an emerging country like Brazil.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Biology, Demography, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Prison, Florianópolis, Joinville

3

This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics.

Concepts: Endangered species, Brazil, German language, States of Brazil, Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, German Brazilian, Joinville

0

A new species of Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae), Stilestrongylus rolandoi n. sp., is described from specimens collected from the small intestine of the rodent Euryoryzomys russatus in the Atlantic Forest (Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil). The genus Stilestrongylus includes 23 species, which parasitize rodents occurring in the Neotropical region. Stilestrongylus aureus (Durette-Desset & Sutton, 1985) from Argentina, S. azarai (Durette-Desset & Sutton, 1985) from Argentina, S. flavescens (Sutton & Durette-Desset, 1991) from Uruguay, S. franciscanus (Digiani & Durette-Desset, 2002) from Argentina, S. gracielae (Digiani & Durette-Desset, 2006) from Argentina, and S. oryzomysi (Sutton & Durette-Desset, 1991) from Argentina are closely related to Stilestrongylus rolandoi n. sp., all having caudal bursa patterns of types 1-4 in one of the lobes. Stilestrongylus rolandoi n. sp. is distinguished from the aforementioned species by its ray 6 being short in relation to rays 4 and 5, which are long and robust, and by having caudal bursa patterns of types 1-4 in both lobes. The new species has 27 ridges in the mid-body in males, and 24 in females, and has one of the highest ratios of spicule length to body length (21-33%) in this genus.

Concepts: Atlantic Ocean, Rodent, Brazil, Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, German Brazilian, Joinville, Palhoça

0

The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is considered the primary insect pest in broiler farms in Brazil. In this study, we characterized the susceptibility of A. diaperinus populations from broiler farms of southern Brazil to cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos. Larvae and adults of A. diaperinus were exposed to these technical insecticides diluted in acetone in residual bioassays. A geographic variation in the susceptibility of larvae and adults of A. diaperinus to both insecticides was detected. The larval LC50 for cypermethrin ranged from 0.43 to 7.33 µg a.i./cm2. Two populations from Santa Catarina state presented higher resistance ratios of 13.6- and 17-fold. When adults were exposed to cypermethrin, the LC50 ranged from 0.46 to 4.93 µg a.i./cm2, with population SC-3 from Santa Catarina having lower susceptibility (resistance ratio of 10.7-fold). When exposed to chlorpyrifos, A. diaperinus larvae present LC50 values ranging from 0.21 to 4.30 µg a.i./cm2. Larvae from Paraná and Santa Catarina (SC-1 population) presented the highest resistance ratios, ranging from 10- to 20-fold. In adults, the LC50 of chlorpyrifos ranged from 0.17 to 5.30 µg a.i./cm2, showing a maximum resistance ratio of 31-fold in a population from Paraná state. Based on LC99 values, candidate diagnostic concentrations of 15 and 12 µg a.i./cm2 of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, respectively, were also estimated for the resistance monitoring of A. diaperinus in Brazil. The implications of these results in Insect Resistance Management are discussed.

Concepts: Insect, Beetle, German language, Insecticide, White Brazilian, Florianópolis, German Brazilian, Joinville

0

The study’s objective was to investigate the association between inadequate dietary consumption of micronutrients and indicators of general and abdominal obesity. Cross-sectional analysis of the second wave of the EpiFloripa Adults longitudinal study, including 1,222 individuals, aged 22-63 years and residing in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Food consumption data was obtained from two 24-hour food recalls, and habitual consumption and prevalence rates of inadequate consumption of calcium, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, C, D, and E were estimated according to the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council guidelines. General obesity was defined based on the body mass index (BMI) values and abdominal obesity was based on waist circumference (WC) values. For most of the micronutrients investigated (calcium and vitamins A, C, D, and E), consumption levels were below the recommendations, with high prevalence of inadequate consumption in the sample as a whole. Only inadequate vitamin C intake was higher among obese individuals (general or abdominal). In addition, there was an inverse association between lower consumption of calcium and iron and higher BMI and WC, and between lower consumption of vitamins A and D and higher WC levels (β = -0.92cm; 95%CI: -1.76; -0.08 and β = -0.69 cm; 95%CI: -1.32; -0.06, respectively), especially in young adults. The study showed an inverse association between inadequate dietary consumption of micronutrients and general and abdominal obesity in a sample of adults in Southern Brazil.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Dietary mineral, Sociology, Body mass index, Vitamin C, Florianópolis, Joinville

0

The effects of chronic exposure to pesticides can lead to the development of several diseases, including different types of cancer, since the genotoxic and mutagenic capacity of these substances can be observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between the occupational exposure to various pesticides and the presence of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples from 50 rural workers (41 men and 9 women) exposed to pesticides, 46 controls (20 men and 26 women) from the same city (Antônio Carlos, Santa Catarina state, Brazil) and 29 controls (15 men and 14 women) from another city (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil), were evaluated using the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) technique for genetic damage, and the test of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase (CAT) activity for the oxidative stress. Cholinesterase activities were also determined, but there was no statistical difference among exposed workers and controls. Significant differences were found in DNA damage among groups. The comet assay performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes of these individuals had a significantly higher DNA damage index in the exposed group comparing to controls (p < 0.0001). MNi (p < 0.001), NBUDs (p < 0.005) and NPBs (p < 0.0001) were also found to be significantly higher in the exposed group. The TBARS values were significantly higher comparing to the Florianopolis control group (p < 0.0001). Even though CAT values were higher than controls, there was no statistical difference. Thus, it is concluded that the exposed individuals, participants of this study, are more subject to suffer genetic damage and, consequently, more susceptible to diseases resulting from such damages.

Concepts: DNA, Mutation, Mutagen, States of Brazil, Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, German Brazilian, Joinville