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Concept: Joint replacement

173

There are several well-described causes of a painful mass following total hip arthroplasty including polyethylene and metal wear debris, infection, expanding hematoma, dislocation, and synovial cysts. In addition to causing pain, these lesions, when large enough, may cause neurologic and vascular compromise. Rapid growth of the mass may clinically and radiographically resemble a sarcoma. Here, we report a case of a large painful hip mass which developed after total hip arthroplasty. The well-circumscribed mass was overlying and extending into the hip joint containing thousands of highly organized fibrin-containing “rice bodies”. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a large, highly organized (rice-body-containing) cyst complicating total hip arthroplasty.

Concepts: Causality, Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, Synovial joint, Polyethylene

169

BACKGROUND: Prolonged physical impairments in range of movement, postural stability and walking speed are commonly reported following total hip replacement (THR). It is unclear from the current body of evidence what kind of exercises should be performed to maximize patient function and quality of life.Methods/designThis will be a single blind multi centre randomized control trial with two arms. Seventy subjects post primary total hip arthroplasty will be randomized into either an experimental group (n=35), or to a control group (n=35).. The experimental group will attend a functional exercise class twice weekly for a six week period from week 12 to week 18 post surgery. The functional exercise group will follow a circuit based functional exercise class supervised by a chartered Physiotherapist. The control group will receive usual care. The principal investigator (BM) will perform blinded outcome assessments on all patients using validated measures for pain, stiffness, and function using the Western Ontario and Mc Master Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC). This is the primary outcome measurement tool. Secondary outcome measurements include Quality of life (SF-36), 6 min walk test, Visual Analogue Scale, and the Berg Balance score. The WOMAC score will be collated on day five post surgery and repeated at week twelve and week eighteen. All other measurements will be taken at week 12 and repeated at week eighteen. In addition a blinded radiologist will measure gluteus medius cross sectional area using real time ultrasound for all subjects at week 12 and at week 18 to determine if the functional exercise programme has any effect on muscle size. DISCUSSION: This randomised controlled trial will add to the body of evidence on the relationship between muscle size, functional ability, balance, quality of life and time post surgery in patients following total hip arthroplasty. The CONSORT guidelines will be followed to throughout. Ethical approval has been gained from the Ethics committee Health Services Executive Dublin North East.Trial registrationThis trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (a service of the United States National Institutes of Health) identifier NCT01683201.

Concepts: Experimental design, Randomized controlled trial, Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement

163

A variety of patient-related outcome questionnaires have been used for the assessment of results of total hip replacement. Generic core scales (SF-12, SF-36) and disease-specific scales like: Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index, Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Oxford Hip Score, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons hip and knee Questionnaire, Lower Extremity Functional Scale are used most frequently. Even though all of them were assessed in terms of construct and content validity, reproducibility and sensitivity, there are still some problems related to bias when total hip replacement evaluation is performed in the presence of comorbidities, contralateral hip disease and ceiling effect influencing the final score. As a result, there is a need for development of a new PRO questionnaire in order to improve total hip replacement assessment, enable early detection of postoperative complications or to evaluate the results of surgery in both hips separately. It is crucial that such measuring device has to be deprived of the influence of irrelevant factors on the final score.

Concepts: Assessment, Psychometrics, Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, John Charnley

46

Exercise treatment is recommended for all patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA), but its effect on the long-term need for total hip replacement (THR) is unknown.

Concepts: Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Joint replacement

28

The relevance of Henry’s pelvic deltoid and its contribution to hip abductor strength is often not considered in hip arthroplasty. This small cadaveric study (n = 11) aimed to quantify the relative contributions of the pelvic deltoid muscles to abductor strength and to assess how different surgical approaches(anterolateral, direct lateral and posterior) impact on each of these muscle groups. We inspected the path of each approach and measured the cross-sectional area of the hip abductors, from which the contribution of each muscle to abductor moment was derived. We concluded that the posterior approach has the least impact on the pelvic deltoid and overall abductor moment.

Concepts: Muscle, Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, Human anatomy, Abduction

28

INTRODUCTION: Hyperfibrinolysis is observed during and immediately after major orthopedic surgery. The kinetics and duration of this phase should be defined to adjust the duration of antifibrinolytic treatment with tranexamic acid (TXA). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify the duration of postoperative fibrinolysis and to assess the biological impact of TXA administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) and 10 patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) with tourniquet were included in an observational, prospective, single-center study. Among these patients, 7 THR patients and 5 TKR patients received TXA (15mg/kg IV intraoperatively, followed by continuous infusion of 15mg/kg/h until end of surgery, then every 4hours until 16±2hours after surgery). D-dimers, euglobulin lysis time (ELT), and thrombin generation time (TGT) were measured prior to surgery as well as 6, 18 and 24hours (H) after. RESULTS: No significant difference in ELT was observed between the groups. In contrast, D-dimers significantly increased postoperatively in patients not treated with TXA (p<0.001), while such an increase was prevented in patients receiving TXA, as measured at H0, H6, H18 and H24 after THR, and at H6 and H18 after TKR (p<0.001). No significant between-group change in TGT, was observed (peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential) all along the study. CONCLUSION: This study shows that fibrinolysis peaked 6hours after end of surgery and maintained about 18hours after surgery, as evidenced by an increase in D-dimers. When administered for up to 16±2hours after surgery, TXA reduced postoperative fibrinolysis.

Concepts: Hip replacement, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, Knee replacement, Polyethylene, Antifibrinolytic, John Charnley

27

Hip fracture surgery and lower extremity arthroplasty are associated with increased risk of both venous thromboembolism and bleeding. The best pharmacologic strategy for reducing these opposing risks is uncertain.

Concepts: Blood, Bone fracture, Risk, Thrombosis, Hip replacement, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, Uncertainty

27

Osteonectin (ON) is an important matrix glycoprotein highly expressed in bone. In several in vitro and animal model studies, ON was used as indicator of the state of osseointegration of implanted devices. There are, however, no studies on ON expression in the synovial fluid of patients with total hip joint replacement (THJR). The purpose of our study was to determine the ON concentration in synovial fluid from three groups of patients: primary uncemented THJR with hip pain (“pain” group; n = 15) and without pain (“no-pain” group; n = 12), and patients with osteoarthitis scheduled to receive a primary THJR (control group; n = 5). For the prosthesized groups, the statistical nature of the correlation between ON concentration and patient age, in situ life of the THJR, presence of periprosthetic osteolysis, and presence of debris in the synovial fluid was individually investigated. ON concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the presence of periprosthetic osteolysis was established using X-radiography and Engh’s criteria, and the presence of debris was determined using digestion and EDX spectroscopy. ON concentration was significantly lower in the “pain” group compared with the “no-pain” one (median values 19.0 and 53.2 ng/mL, respectively). ON concentration in the control group (median value: 16.9 ng/mL) was comparable with that reported in the literature. In the prosthesized groups, ON concentration was not correlated with patient age, in situ life of the prosthesis, presence of periprosthetic osteolysis, or presence of debris in the synovial fluid. Our results suggest that cases of unexplained pain in THJR patients could be treated by paying special attention to the osseointegration status of the implant by using ON concentration as an early indicator of this status.

Concepts: Implants, Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, Prosthetics, Implant

27

Cup positioning is an important variable for short and long term function, stability, and durability of total hip arthroplasty (THA). This novel method utilizes internal and external bony landmarks, and the transverse acetabular ligament for positioning the acetabular component. The cup is placed parallel and superior to the transverse ligament and inside the anterior wall notch of the true acetabulum, then adjusted for femoral version and pelvic tilt and obliquity based on weight bearing radiographs. In 78 consecutive THAs, the mean functional anteversion and abduction angles were 17.9°±4.7° and 41.7°±3.8°, respectively. 96% of the functional anteversion measurements and 100% of the functional abduction angles were within the safe zone. This technique is an easy, reproducible, and accurate method for functional cup placement.

Concepts: Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, Acetabulum, Pubis, Ilium

27

PURPOSE: Despite the great attention focused on cup positioning in primary total hip arthroplasty (PTHA), it is surprising to find so few studies that have dealt with cup placement. A common thwarting problem for correct cup placement during PTHA is the existence of osteophytes, which obscure the anatomical landmarks. In this study we aimed to evaluate the morphology of acetabular osteophyte formation in patients with osteoarthritis. METHOD: We evaluated 276 patients with hip complaints, using plain X-rays and CT scans. RESULTS: Of these patients, 57 underwent surgery. We developed a staging system for central osteophytes in hip osteoarthritis based on the radiographic and anatomical findings of our patients. CONCLUSION: We recommend routine use of CT scans for patients scheduled for PTHA in order to assess the stage of osteophyte before surgery and, thus, reduce the risk of failure resulting from the interrupted acetabular landmarks.

Concepts: Radiography, Physician, Radiology, Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement