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Concept: John Wiley & Sons

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As the age of the population increases in many nations, age-related degenerative diseases pose significant socioeconomic challenges. One of the key degenerative diseases that compromise quality of life is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a multi-faceted condition that affects the central retina, which ultimately leads to blindness in millions of people worldwide. The pathophysiology and risk factors for AMD are complex, and the symptoms manifest in multiple related but distinct forms. The ability to develop effective treatments for AMD will depend on a thorough understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, risk factors, and driver molecular pathways, as well as the ability to develop useful animal models. This review provides an overview of the aforementioned aspects in AMD. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Retina, John Wiley & Sons, Macular degeneration, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Great Britain, Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland, Accessible publishing

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Objective: A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the accumulated data on the screening performance of second-trimester sonographic markers for fetal trisomy 21. Methods: We conducted a literature search to identify 47 studies between 1995 and September 2012 that provided data on the incidence of sonographic markers in trisomy 21 and euploid fetuses at 14-24 weeks' gestation. Weighted independent estimations of detection rate, false positive rate, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR) of markers were calculated. Results: The pooled estimates of positive and negative LR 5.85 (95% CI 5.04-6.80) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.86) for intracardiac echogenic focus, 25.78 (95% CI 12.85-51.73) and 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.98) for ventriculomegaly, 19.18 (95% CI 11.55-31.84) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.86) for increased nuchal fold, 10.82 (95% CI 8.43-13.72) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.94) for hyperechogenic bowel, 7.77 (95% CI 6.22-9.71) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.89-0.96) for mild hydronephrosis, 3.72 (95% CI 2.79-4.97) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.73-0.88) for short femur, 4.81 (95% CI 3.49-6.62) and 0.74 (95% CI 0.63-0.88) for short humerus, 21.48 (95% CI 11.48-40.19) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.57-0.88) for ARSA and 23.26 (95% CI 14.23-38.03) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.36-0.58) for absent or hypoplastic nasal bone. The combined negative LR, by multiplying the values of individual markers, was 0.13 (95% CI 0.05-0.29) when short femur but not short humerus was included and 0.12 (95% CI 0.06-0.29) when short humerus but not short femur was included. Conclusion: Presence of sonographic markers increases and absence decreases the risk for trisomy 21. In the case of most isolated markers there is only a small effect on modifying the pre-test odds for trisomy 21, but with ventriculomegaly, nuchal fold thickness and ARSA there is a 3-4 fold increase in risk and with hypoplastic nasal bone a 6-7 fold increase. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Fetus, Type I and type II errors, John Wiley & Sons, Nasal bone, Absenteeism, Likelihood-ratio test

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Much progress has been made over the past decade with the development of novel methods for addressing increasingly more complex multiplicity problems arising in confirmatory Phase III clinical trials. This includes traditional problems with a single source of multiplicity, for example, analysis of multiple endpoints or dose-placebo contrasts. In addition, more advanced problems with several sources of multiplicity have attracted attention in clinical drug development. These problems include two or more families of objectives such as multiple endpoints evaluated at multiple dose levels or in multiple patient populations. This paper provides a review of concepts that play a central role in defining and solving multiplicity problems (error rate definitions) and introduces main classes of multiple testing procedures widely used in clinical trials (nonparametric, semiparametric, and parametric procedures). The paper also presents recent advances in multiplicity research, including gatekeeping procedures for clinical trials with multiple sets of objectives. The concepts and methods introduced in the paper are illustrated using several case studies on the basis of real clinical trials. Software implementation of commonly used multiple testing and gatekeeping procedures is discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Clinical trial, Pharmaceutical industry, Drug discovery, Drug development, John Wiley & Sons, Michael Keaton

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The current study was undertaken to explore the antipyretic and anticonvulsant profile of the Polygonatum verticillatum in established pharmacological paradigms. The crude methanol extract of rhizomes (PR) and aerial parts (PA) of the plant were tested in Brewer’s-yeast-induced pyrexia and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion test. PR and PA both evoked prominent antipyretic activity (p < 0.01) in a dose-dependent manner during all assessment times at the dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The protection elicited by PR (82.20%) at 200 mg/kg was comparable with aspirin (88.48%) as a standard drug at 100 mg/kg. However, PA was less potent, and maximum protection was 64% at 200 mg/kg. Both PR and PA were devoid of any anticonvulsant activity. Our results demonstrated prominent evidence of antipyretic activity of P. verticillatum that is consistent with the folk uses of the plant. In addition from a biodiversity point of view, PA of the plant can also be used as an alternate of PR. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Ibuprofen, Aspirin, John Wiley & Sons, Fever, Steve Jobs, Polygonatum verticillatum, Polygonatum

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The synthetic cannabinoid, UR-144 ((1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone), was identified in commercial ‘legal high’ products (herbal, resin, and powder). Along with this, six related compounds were detected. The most abundant one (2.1) was identified as 4-hydroxy-3,3,4-trimethyl-1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)pentan-1-one, a product of the electrophilic addition of water to the cyclopropane moiety in UR-144. Compound 2.1 was found to be undergo cyclisation which leads to the formation of two additional interconvertable compounds (2.3, tentatively identified as 1-pentyl-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)-1H-indole which is stable only in absence of water and also observed as GC artifact) and 2.2, a protonated derivative of 2.3 which is formed in acidic solutions. The remaining compounds were identified as possible degradation products of the group 2 compounds (4,4,5,5-tetramethyldihydrofuran-2(3H)-one and 1-pentylindoline-2,3-dione) and intermediates or by-products from the synthesis of UR-144 ((1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone, 1-pentyl-1H-indole and 1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)hexan-1-one). Pyrolysis of herbal products containing the group 2 compounds or UR-144 resulted in the formation of 3,3,4-trimethyl-1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)pent-4-en-1-one (3). This was confirmed by separate pyrolysis of 2.1 and UR-144. Also, the two additional minor compounds, 1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone and 1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-1-one, were detected. Pathways for these transformations are presented. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Group, Chemical compound, John Wiley & Sons, Herbalism, UCI race classifications, Cannabinoid, Electrophile, Electrophilic addition

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Bixa orellana L., urucum, or urucu, a native tropical tree of Central and South American rain forests is used to treat various diseases in popular medicine. In Ceará, Northeast of Brazil, the seeds of urucum have been used for the treatment of high lipid blood levels. The present study investigated the effects of the aqueous extract from Bixa orellana seeds (AEBO) in mice with hyperlipidemia induced by tyloxapol, fructose and ethanol. In hyperlipidemia induced by Triton WR1339, 400 and 800 mg/kg AEBO reduced triglycerides (TG) serum levels at 24 h and 48 h. In the study of hypertriglyceridemia induced by fructose, AEBO in doses of 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg reduced TG levels by 48.2% and 48.7%, respectively. Finally, the ethanol experimental model with 400 mg/kg AEBO promoted a reduction of 33.6% of TG levels, while the 800 mg/kg concentration reduced hypertriglyceridemia in 62.2%. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of the seeds of Bixa orellana was capable of reversing the hypertriglyceridemia induced by Triton, fructose and ethanol, demonstrating a hypolipidemic effect. However, further studies are necessary to discover the precise mechanism of action. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: John Wiley & Sons, Brazil, Northeast Region, Brazil, Annatto, Bixa orellana, Bixa, Bixaceae, Malvales

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Pancreatic lipase is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diet-induced obesity in humans. In an ongoing search for new pancreatic lipase inhibitors from natural sources, a methanolic extract of marine brown algae, Eisenia bicyclis, showed a significant inhibitory effect against pancreatic lipase. Bioassay-guided isolation of this methanolic extract using a pancreatic lipase inhibitory assay led to the isolation and identification of six known phlorotannins: eckol (1), fucofuroeckol A (2), 7-phloroeckol (3), dioxindehydroeckol (4), phlorofucofuroeckol A (5), and dieckol (6). The structures were established on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry spectroscopic data interpretation. Among the isolated phloroglucinol polymers, compounds 2 and 3 showed potent inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase with IC(50) values ranging from 37.2 ± 2.3 to 12.7 ± 1.0 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Effect, Nuclear magnetic resonance, John Wiley & Sons, Isotope, Lipase, Astronomical spectroscopy, Pancreatic lipase

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OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of a new prenatal diagnostic platform - prenatal BACs-on-Beads™ (BoBs™) in detecting mosaicism by comparison to quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR). METHODS: A validation study of prenatal BoBs™ was firstly performed using 18 artificially constructing mosaic samples involving various aneuploidies and microdeletion conditions. Additionally, we compared the accuracy between prenatal BoBs™ and QF-PCR for 18 archived clinical mosaic cases and nine chromosomally abnormal cell lines with reference to conventional karyotype results. RESULTS: In the validation study, BoBs™ allowed the detection of mosaicism at a level of 20-40%. Among the clinical mosaic cases, 14/18 cases were within the detection of BoBs™, 8/14 (57.1%) could be identified by BoBs™ and 6/9 (66.7%) by QF-PCR, but 6/14 (42.9%) were missed by both tests. Three cases (16.7%) were detected by prenatal BoBs™ but missed by QF-PCR, whereas QF-PCR detected one case that was missed by BoBs™. The overall sensitivity of BoBs™ in detecting mosaicism is 44.4% (8/18), which is slightly higher than that of QF-PCR (33.3%; 6/18). CONCLUSION: Prenatal BoBs™ has a sensitivity of 57.1% in the detection clinical mosaic cases. According to the validation test, mosaicism of 20% or greater is detectable by the BoBs™ assay. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Detection theory, Klinefelter's syndrome, John Wiley & Sons

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Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is a plant species used in Mexican folk medicine for its antispasmodic and simulative properties. Recently, we identified a new alkaloid, isopropyl N-methylanthranilate, and a related one, methyl N-methylanthranilate, from the essential oil of this species and have proven them to possess antinociceptive activity even at 0.3 mg/kg. In the present study, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the two compounds have been studied in open field, horizontal wire, light/dark, forced swimming and tail suspension tests, as well as the effect on the onset and duration of diazepam-induced sleep in BALB/c mice. The volatile alkaloids (50-200 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally), without having a muscle relaxant effect, caused a significant increase in the time the animals spent in an unsecured and putatively dangerous area when compared with the control group but had no effect on the number of crossings between the light/dark compartments. In addition to this anxiolytic activity, a significantly antidepressant-like effect was apparent at all tested doses, which was not due to an increase in locomotive activity. The anthranilates administered on their own did not induce sleep in mice but significantly prolonged the diazepam-induced sleep, in a dose-dependent way, suggesting an interaction with the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor complex. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Effect, Antidepressant, John Wiley & Sons, Cocaine, The Onset, Traditional medicine, Rutaceae, Choisya

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INTRODUCTION: The fruits of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. are a valuable source of biologically active flavonoid derivatives. For studies focused on the purification of its quercetin glycosides (QGs) and related glycosides from plants and for the purpose of biological studies, the availability of numeric datasets from computer-assisted (1) H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA), that is, (1) H-NMR fingerprinting, can replace and assist the repetitive and tedious two-dimensional NMR identification protocol required for both known and new compounds, respectively. OBJECTIVE: To fully interpret the complex (1) H-NMR fingerprints of eight QGs obtained from the berries of V. vitis-idaea and provide complete and unambiguous signal assignments. METHODS: Vaccinium vitis-idaea QGs were purified in a single run by long-bed gel permeation chromatography and identified by comparison with commercially available compounds using LC-MS combining ion-trap and time-of-flight detection and one- or two-dimensional NMR. The HiFSA analysis yielded full sets of (1) H chemical shifts and proton-proton coupling constants, allowing for field-independent spectral simulation. RESULTS: Signal assignments were achieved for the reference standards and the QGs that dominated in purified fractions. However, even mixtures of two to three QGs could be fitted using the HiFSA approach. In the case of the overlapped sugar resonances, the initial fitting of the (1) H spectra of reference compounds, together with values extracted from the two-dimensional NMR data and literature data, assisted in the process. CONCLUSION: The HiFSA method revealed for the first time the presence of Q-3-O-β-glucopyranoside and Q-3-O-β-glucuronopyranoside in the berries of V. vitis-idaea, and unambiguously confirmed the structures of Q-3-O-[4″-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)]-α-rhamnopyranoside, Q-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, Q-3-O-β-galactopyranoside, Q-3-O-α-arabinofuranoside, Q-3-O-β-xylopyranoside and Q-3-O-α-arabinopyranoside. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Biology, Chemical compound, John Wiley & Sons, Fruit, Quercetin, Flavonols, Fingerprint, Vaccinium vitis-idaea