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Concept: Johannesburg


Intersections between migration and sex work are underexplored in southern Africa, a region with high internal and cross-border population mobility, and HIV prevalence. Sex work often constitutes an important livelihood activity for migrant women. In 2010, sex workers trained as interviewers conducted cross-sectional surveys with 1,653 female sex workers in Johannesburg (Hillbrow and Sandton), Rustenburg and Cape Town. Most (85.3 %) sex workers were migrants (1396/1636): 39.0 % (638/1636) internal and 46.3 % (758/1636) cross-border. Cross-border migrants had higher education levels, predominately worked part-time, mainly at indoor venues, and earned more per client than other groups. They, however, had 41 % lower health service contact (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; 95 % confidence interval = 0.40-0.86) and less frequent condom use than non-migrants. Police interaction was similar. Cross-border migrants appear more tenacious in certain aspects of sex work, but require increased health service contact. Migrant-sensitive, sex work-specific health care and health education are needed.

Concepts: Health care, Public health, Health, Africa, Human migration, South Africa, Higher education, Johannesburg


Accurate program planning for populations most at risk for HIV/STI acquisition requires knowledge of the size and location where these populations can best be reached. To obtain this information for sex workers operating at 137 hotspots in the central business district (CBD) in Nairobi, Kenya, we utilized a combined mapping and capture-recapture enumeration exercise. The majority of identified hotspots in this study were bars. Based on this exercise, we estimate that 6,904 male and female sex workers (95% confidence intervals, 6690 and 7118) were working nightly in the Nairobi CBD in April 2009. Wide ranges of captures per spot were obtained, suggesting that relatively few hot spots (18%) contain a relatively high proportion of the area’s sex workers (65%). We provide geographic data including relatively short distances from hotspots to our dedicated sex worker outreach program in the CBD (mean<1 km), and clustering of hotspots within a relatively small area. Given the size covered and areas where sex work is likely taking place in Nairobi, the estimate is several times lower than what would be obtained if the entire metropolitan area was enumerated. These results have important practical and policy implications for enhancing HIV/STI prevention efforts.

Concepts: Male, Prostitution, HotSpot, Johannesburg, Sex worker, Sex workers' rights, Sex workers, Central business district


In the 20 years since South Africa underwent a peaceful transition from apartheid to a constitutional democracy, considerable social progress has been made toward reversing the discriminatory practices that pervaded all aspects of life before 1994.(1)-(5) Yet the health and well-being of most South Africans remain plagued by a relentless burden of infectious and noncommunicable diseases, persisting social disparities, and inadequate human resources to provide care for a growing population with a rising tide of refugees and economic migrants.(4),(6) Appropriate responses to South African health care challenges would be to address the social determinants of health (which lie . . .

Concepts: Health disparities, Africa, South Africa, Racial segregation, African Union, Human Development Index, Johannesburg, Nelson Mandela


Health education is important to empower patients and encourage their contribution towards tuberculosis (TB) control. In South Africa, health education activities are integrated into services provided at the primary health care (PHC) level. This study was conducted in a high TB burden metropolitan area in South Africa. The objective was to assess TB-related knowledge, attitudes and infection control practices of patients attending PHC facilities.

Concepts: AIDS, Health care, Public health, Health, Africa, Health education, African Union, Johannesburg


Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. During the cross-sectional survey of the Health, Environment and Development study data loggers were installed in 100 homes (20 per suburb) from February to May 2014. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded on an hourly basis. Ambient outdoor temperatures were obtained from the nearest weather station. Indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity levels were compared; and an inter-comparison between the different housing types were also made. Apparent temperature was calculated to assess indoor thermal comfort. Data from 59 retrieved loggers showed a significant difference in monthly mean indoor temperature between the five different housing types (p < 0.0001). Low cost government-built houses and informal settlement houses had the greatest variation in temperature and experienced temperatures between 4 and 5 °C warmer than outdoor temperatures. Housing types occupied by poor communities experienced indoor temperature fluctuations often greater than that observed for ambient temperatures. Families living in government-built low-cost and informally-constructed homes are the most at risk for indoor temperature extremes. These types of housing should be prioritised for interventions aimed at assisting families to cope with extreme temperatures, gaining optimal thermal comfort and preventing temperature-related health effects.

Concepts: Poverty, Weather, Temperature, South Africa, Humidity, Relative humidity, Johannesburg, Nelson Mandela


The caries arrest that can be achieved by using silver diamine fluoride (SDF) offers a minimally invasive and inexpensive alternative to traditional restorative caries treatment. The authors evaluated how the dentinal staining that is associated with SDF influences the acceptance of this treatment among parents of young children in the New York City metropolitan area.

Concepts: Minimally invasive, New York City, London, Metropolitan area, Philadelphia, Johannesburg, City of London, Megacity


Plans for smart mobility through cycling are often hampered by lack of information on cycling patterns and trends, particularly in cities of the developing world such as Johannesburg. Similarly, traditional methods of data collection such as bicycle counts are often expensive, cover a limited spatial extent and not up-to-date. Consequently, the dataset presented in this paper illustrates the spatial and temporal coverage of cycling patterns and trends in Johannesburg for the year 2014 derived from the geolocation based mobile application Strava. To the best knowledge of the authors, there is little or no comprehensive dataset that describes cycling patterns in Johannesburg. Perhaps this dataset is a tool that will support evidence based transportation planning and smart mobility.

Concepts: City, Data, South Africa, Knowledge, Metaphysics, Metropolitan area, Johannesburg, Soweto


We determined the demographic characteristics, behaviors, injuries, and outcomes of commercial bicyclists who were injured while navigating New York City’s (NYC’s) central business district.

Concepts: New York City, Chicago, Manhattan, Downtown, Johannesburg, City of London, Midtown Manhattan, Central business district


We examined the association between years living in the United States and overweight risk among a community sample of Filipino adult immigrants living in the New York metropolitan area. We found a significant and adverse association between years living in the United States and overweight risk. Compared with Filipinos who lived in the United States less than 5 years, those who lived in the United States 10 years or longer had a higher overweight risk; this association was present only among Filipinos who migrated to New York metropolitan area at 30 years of age or younger. Studies on causal mechanisms explaining this pattern are needed.

Concepts: European Union, United States, New York City, London, Metropolitan area, Philadelphia, Johannesburg, Megacity


The largest outbreak of sporotrichosis occurred between 1938 and 1947 in the gold mines of Witwatersrand in South Africa. Here, we describe an outbreak of lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis that was investigated in a South African gold mine in 2011.

Concepts: Africa, Gold, South Africa, California Gold Rush, African Union, Gold mining, Johannesburg, Gold extraction