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Concept: Jeddah

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A total of 145007 reads were obtained from pyrosequencing for all the 4 samples. The total count ranged from 11,301,014 (Mecca old road) to 23,503,512 bp (Thuwal). A total of 460 fungal species belonging to 133 genera, 58 families, 33 orders, 13 classes and 4 phyla was identified across the four sites. The most abundant phylum at all four sites was Ascomycota followed by Basidiomycota. Four phyla (Ascomycota-99.31%, Basidiomycota-0.59%, Chytridiomycota-0.04%, Glomeromycota-0.03%) were detected in Khulais. Except for Glomeromycota, all phyla were detected at Mecca old road (Ascomycota-74.26%, Basidiomycota-25.71%, Chytridiomycota-0.01%) and Thuwal (Ascomycota-99.59%, Basidiomycota-0.40%, Chytridiomycota-0.002%); while only Ascomycota-90.98% and Basidiomycota-9.01% were detected in Asfan road. At the class level, Sordariomycetes was predominantly observed at Asfan road-59.88%, Khulais-68.26% and Thuwal-94.84%; while Pezizomycetes was dominant at Mecca old road-56.01%, was absent at Asfan road. Agaricomycetes was present only at Mecca old road-25.73%; while Tremellomycetes-5.77%, Malasseizomycetes-2.13% and Microbotryomycetes-1.10% were found only at Asfan road. The phylogenetic trees revealed that clear genus level differences are visible across all the four sites, with an overall predominance of Thielavia followed by Madurella, Aspergillus, and Gelasinospora. Chaetomium sp., Aspergillus caespitosus and Aspergillus sp. were found in moderate (Mecca old road and Thuwal) to abundant (Asfan road and Khulais) quantities. Thielavia sp., Thielavia hyalocarpa and Madurella sp. are found in moderate quantities at Khulais and Mecca old road, while in abundant levels at Asfan road and Thuwal. Fusarium equisati and F. oxysporum were detected at Thuwal and Khulais. Sordaria araneosa was present at Khulais, while Malasseiza globosa species was detected in moderate quantities across all sites except Khulais.

Concepts: Species, Fungus, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Genus, Ascomycota, Jeddah, Sordariomycetes

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Research in Saudi Arabia has revealed a shocking level of insufficiently physically active adults, particularly women. The risk of sedentary behavior will likely increase as the number of women with office-based jobs increases. The aim of this study is to determine the level of sedentary behavior, and its associated factors, among Saudi women working office-based jobs in the city of Riyadh. A cross-sectional study of 420 Saudi female employees at 8 office-based worksites were measured to determine body mass index and were given a self-administered survey to evaluate their level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Median sitting time on work days was 690 min per day (interquartile range, IQR 541-870), with nearly half accumulated during work hours, and 575 min per day (IQR 360-780) on non-work days. Predictors of work day sitting time were level of education, number of children, and working in the private sector. Number of children, whether they were single, and whether they lived in a small home were found to predict non-work day sitting time. This study identifies Saudi women in office-based jobs as a high-risk group for sedentary behavior. There is a need to promote physical activity at worksites and reduce prolonged sitting.

Concepts: Obesity, Interquartile range, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il

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Mangroves are unique, and endangered, coastal ecosystems that play a vital role in the tropical and subtropical environments. A comprehensive description of the microbial communities in these ecosystems is currently lacking, and additional studies are required to have a complete understanding of the functioning and resilience of mangroves worldwide. In this work, we carried out a metagenomic study by comparing the microbial community of mangrove sediment with the rhizosphere microbiome of Avicennia marina, in northern Red Sea mangroves, along the coast of Saudi Arabia. Our results revealed that rhizosphere samples presented similar profiles at the taxonomic and functional levels and differentiated from the microbiome of bulk soil controls. Overall, samples showed predominance by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with high abundance of sulfate reducers and methanogens, although specific groups were selectively enriched in the rhizosphere. Functional analysis showed significant enrichment in ‘metabolism of aromatic compounds’, ‘mobile genetic elements’, ‘potassium metabolism’ and ‘pathways that utilize osmolytes’ in the rhizosphere microbiomes. To our knowledge, this is the first metagenomic study on the microbiome of mangroves in the Red Sea, and the first application of unbiased 454-pyrosequencing to study the rhizosphere microbiome associated with A. marina. Our results provide the first insights into the range of functions and microbial diversity in the rhizosphere and soil sediments of gray mangrove (A. marina) in the Red Sea.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Red Sea, Jeddah, Mangrove, Avicennia

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Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32-0.71), weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03-0.43), and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17-0.33), suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah

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Considering the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other associated health problems among young people globally, it is important to identify sexual practices that could potentially compromise health. This study explored the sexual practices of young men in Riyadh city, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and methodology A cross-sectional study among young, male students was conducted using a pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and adjusted odds ratio (OR) were calculated.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Mecca, Sexually transmitted disease, Human sexual behavior, Jeddah, Ha'il

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To delineate the clinical features and outcomes of dengue infection and to guide clinician of early diagnosis and identification of risks factors for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Methods: This study is a retrospective cross-sectional. Clinical records of 567 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of dengue infection, admitted to a single hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between January 2010 and  June 2014 were reviewed.  Results: Dengue infection was most common in adult males. Sixty-eight percent of infections were in Saudi nationals. In addition to the diagnostic clinical features, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were typical of dengue infection. Approximately 4.1% of adult patients and 7.1% of pediatric patients developed dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Abdominal pain and vomiting were more common in patients developing DHF. Mean platelet count was lower in adult, but not pediatric patients developing DHF. Peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was higher in adult and pediatric patients developing DHF. Three patients died, 2 of them developed DHF. Ninety-eight percent of adult patients and 92% of pediatric patients made a full recovery. Conclusions:   Dengue infection is common in Jeddah.  Abdominal pain and vomiting, thrombocytopenia, and elevated ALT are typical of severe infection, which is more likely to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

Concepts: Alanine transaminase, Saudi Arabia, Aspirin, Fever, Dengue fever, Thrombocytopenia, Dengue, Jeddah

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Health care is a basic human right, and Saudi Arabia affirms these rights for all its citizens.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Saudi Arabia, Mecca, Law, Human rights, Jeddah, Medina

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To assess hospital emergency nurses' self-reported knowledge, role awareness and skills in disaster response with respect to the Hajj mass gathering in Mecca.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, House of Saud, Medina, Masjid al-Haram

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Pyrethroid resistance is a threat to effective vector control of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue, Zika and other arboviruses, but there are many major knowledge gaps on the mechanisms of resistance. In Jeddah and Makkah, the principal dengue-endemic areas of Saudi Arabia, pyrethroids are used widely for Ae. aegypti control but information about resistance remains sparse, and the underlying genetic basis is unknown. Findings from an ongoing study in this internationally significant area are reported here.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Mecca, Aedes aegypti, Aedes, Jeddah, Medina, Makkah Province

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To assess the effect of wet cupping on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of adult patients with chronic medical conditions, who were referred to the Cupping Clinic of King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A controlled, quasi-experimental study design was carried out among 629 patients referred for cupping from the KAUH Specialty Clinics, during the period from January to December 2014. Patients in the intervention group (309 patients) completed a pre-test included WHO quality of life-BREF, received one wet-cupping session, and filled-out the post-test (1 month later). Patients in the control group (320 patients) completed the pre-test during their enrollment in the study and post-test one month later. Both groups received their ordinary treatment. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed.  Results: Pain was the most common cause for cupping referral. After cupping intervention, the mean scores of most of the HRQOL domains, especially the physical domain, improved significantly among patients in the intervention group. The mean total score of physical HRQOL domain was 61.6 ± 13.6 before cupping, and reached 69.7 ± 12.6 after intervention (paired t-test=11.3, p=0.000). Improvements in HRQOL were noticed for almost all types of pain and other medical conditions.  Conclusion: There are promising effects in favor of using wet cupping for improving HRQOL of patients with chronic conditions. Cupping is recommended as a complementary treatment modality for chronic medical conditions, especially pain.

Concepts: Better, Medicine, Improve, Hospital, Quality, Saudi Arabia, Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University