Concept: Jazz in the Domain
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Published almost 7 years ago
Social judgments are made on the basis of both visual and auditory information, with consequential implications for our decisions. To examine the impact of visual information on expert judgment and its predictive validity for performance outcomes, this set of seven experiments in the domain of music offers a conservative test of the relative influence of vision versus audition. People consistently report that sound is the most important source of information in evaluating performance in music. However, the findings demonstrate that people actually depend primarily on visual information when making judgments about music performance. People reliably select the actual winners of live music competitions based on silent video recordings, but neither musical novices nor professional musicians were able to identify the winners based on sound recordings or recordings with both video and sound. The results highlight our natural, automatic, and nonconscious dependence on visual cues. The dominance of visual information emerges to the degree that it is overweighted relative to auditory information, even when sound is consciously valued as the core domain content.
Physical therapy (PT) is one of the key disciplines in interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update of the evidence for stroke rehabilitation interventions in the domain of PT.
The results in this paper establish that information contained in patents in a technological domain is strongly correlated with the rate of technological progress in that domain. The importance of patents in a domain, the recency of patents in a domain and the immediacy of patents in a domain are all strongly correlated with increases in the rate of performance improvement in the domain of interest. A patent metric that combines both importance and immediacy is not only highly correlated (r = 0.76, p = 2.6*10-6) with the performance improvement rate but the correlation is also very robust to domain selection and appears to have good predictive power for more than ten years into the future. Linear regressions with all three causal concepts indicate realistic value in practical use to estimate the important performance improvement rate of a technological domain.
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant native to Southeastern Asia that is receiving increased international attention as a potential therapeutic agent. While much of the limited scientific research on kratom is focused on its analgesic potential, kratom use also has important risks and benefits in the domain of mental health.
A major challenge for accumulating knowledge in psychology is the variation in methods and participant populations across studies in a single domain. We offer a systematic approach to addressing this challenge and implement it in the domain of money priming. In three preregistered experiments ( N = 4,649), participants were exposed to one of a number of money manipulations before completing self-report measures of money activation (Study 1); engaging in a behavioral-persistence task (Study 3); completing self-report measures of subjective wealth, self-sufficiency, and communion-agency (Studies 1-3); and completing demographic questions (Studies 1-3). Four of the five manipulations we tested activated the concept of money, but, contrary to what we expected based on the preponderance of the published literature, no manipulation consistently affected any dependent measure. Moderation by sociodemographic characteristics was sparse and inconsistent across studies. We discuss implications for theories of money priming and explain how our approach can complement recent efforts to build a reproducible, cumulative psychological science.
We investigate the effect of variable uniaxial tensile strain on the evolution of 71° ferroelastic domains in (001)-oriented epitaxial BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). For this purpose, a newly designed bending stage has been employed which allows for tensile bending as wells as in-situ PFM characterization. In-situ PFM imaging reveals polarization-strain correlations at the nanoscale. Specifically, ferroelastic domains with in-plane polarization along the direction of applied tensile strain expand, while the adjoining domains with orthogonal in-plane polarization contract. The switching is mediated by significant domain wall roughening and opposite displacement of the successive walls. Further, the domains with long-range order are more susceptible to an applied external mechanical stimulus compared to the domains, which exhibits short-range periodicity. In addition, the imprint state of film reverses direction under applied tensile strain. Finally, the strain-induced changes in the domain structure, and wall motion are fully reversible and revert to their as-grown state upon release of the applied stress. The strain-induced non-180° polarization rotation constitutes a route to control connected functionalities such as magnetism via coupled in-plane rotation of the magnetic plane in multiferroic BFO thin films.
The overwhelming amount of research articles in the domain of bio-medicine might cause important connections to remain unnoticed. Literature Based Discovery is a sub-field within biomedical text mining that peruses these articles to formulate high confident hypotheses on possible connections between medical concepts. Although many alternate methodologies have been proposed over the last decade, they still suffer from scalability issues. The primary reason, apart from the dense inter-connections between biological concepts, is the absence of information on the factors that lead to the edge-formation. In this work, we formulate this problem as a collaborative filtering task and leverage a relatively new concept of word-vectors to learn and mimic the implicit edge-formation process. Along with single-class classifier, we prune the search-space of redundant and irrelevant hypotheses to increase the efficiency of the system and at the same time maintaining and in some cases even boosting the overall accuracy.
Intact cognitive and emotional functioning is vital for the long-term success of addiction treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between chronic marijuana use and lasting alterations in cognitive brain function. Despite initial evidence for altered emotion processing in dependent marijuana users after short abstinence periods, adaptations in the domain of emotion processing after longer abstinence remain to be determined.
Incorporating photosensitive molecules into the organic/inorganic hybrid materials can contribute to forming photoresponsive systems. The second/third-order nonlinear optical properties can be changed via external light stimulation at an appropriate wavelength. The photochromic metal complexes appear to be superior promising materials in the domain of photoswitchable nonlinear optics (NLO). Thus, the purpose of this review is to examine current progress of metal complexes in the field of photoswitchable NLO materials and provide perspectives for the future. The overview includes the second-order and third-order NLO photoswitches and NLO properties of metal complexes. Combined with the characteristics of pyrene and stilbazolium groups, we describe a new type of photoswitchable NLO materials. The rapidly increasing investigations in this domain suggest that NLO photoswitches of metal complexes would play a critical role for inspiring applications in the future.
The formation process of a ferroelectric multi-rank domain pattern in the thickness range of 7 to 52 nm is investigated for monoclinic K<sub>0.9</sub>Na<sub>0.1</sub>NbO<sub>3</sub> strained epitaxial films on (110) NdScO<sub>3</sub> substrates. Although the elastic strain energy density is degenerated for two pseudocubic orientations, a distinctive hierarchy of domain evolution is observed with exclusive in-plane a<sub>1</sub>a<sub>2</sub> domains for very thin films and the retarded onset of a ferroelectric M<sub>C</sub> phase at larger film thickness. This is accompanied by a thickness dependent transformation from stripe domains to a herringbone pattern and, eventually, for the thickest film, to a checkerboard-like structure. These transformations in the domain arrangement and width are correlated to energetic aspects as depolarization field and anisotropic strain relaxation in the film. While for the M<sub>C</sub> domains plastic strain relaxation is throughout observed, the a<sub>1</sub>a<sub>2</sub> domains show a two-step strain relaxation mechanism starting with an in-plane elastic shearing, which is followed by plastic lattice relaxation. Our results highlight a pathway for engineering and patterning of periodic ferroelectric domain structures.